THE FIRST EPISTLE
I. PAUL, called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ, by the will
2 of God, and Sosthenes the brother, to the congregation of God which is at Corinth—to them who are hallowed by Christ Jesus—called to be holy, together with all those in every place
3 who invoke the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, both their Lord and ours: favour be to you, and peace from God our father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.
4 I thank my God always with respect to you, for the favour of God which is granted you by Christ Jesus, that in'every
5 thing you have been enriched by him with all doctrine and
6 with all knowledge, in the same manner as the testimony of Christ was confirmed among you; so that you are not deficient
7 in any gift during your waiting for the full manifestation of
8 our Lord Jesus Christ, who will confirm you to the end, exempt from accusation in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.
9 God is faithful by whom you have been called to a fellowship in his son, Jesus Christ our Lord. And I intreat you, brethren,
10 by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you all speak the same thing, and that there be no divisions among you, but that you be perfectly united in the same mind and in the same sen-
11 timent. For I am informed respecting you, my brethren, by some of Chloe's family, that there are contentions among you;
12 I mean this, that every one of you saith, I am for Paul; and I
13 am for Apollos1; and I for Cephas; and I for Christ. Is the Christ divided"? Was Paul crucified for you ? Or were you
14 baptized to the name of Paul? I thank God that I baptized none of you, except Crispus and Gaius, that none might say
15 that I baptized to my own name. I baptized also the house-
16 hold of Stephanas. I do not recollect that I baptized any other.
17 For Christ did not send me to baptize, but to proclaim the glad tidings, not with wisdom of speech, that the cross of the
18 Christ might not be rendered useless. For this doctrine (the doctrine of the cross) is foolishness to them who perish; but
19 to us who are saved it is the power of God. For it is written,
"I will destroy the wisdom of the wise,
And abolish the understanding of the prudent."*
20 Where is the wise? Where the scribe? Where the disputer of this age? Hath not God shewn the wisdom of this world to be
21 folly? For when, amidst the wisdom of God, the world did not, by means of that wisdom, know God; it pleased God by the
22 foolishness of this proclamation to save them who believe; so when the Jews demand a sign and the Greeks seek wisdom,
23 as for us, we proclaim a crucified Christ—to the Jews indeed
24 a stumbling block, and to the Greeks foolishness; but to them
25 who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God; because this foolish thing of God is wiser than men, and this weak thing of God is stronger
26 than men. For observe, brethren, this call of you, that there are not many wise after the flesh, not many mighty, not many
27 of illustrious birth; but God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to put to shame the wise; and the weak things of the
28 world God hath made choice of to put to shame the strong— and the ignoble of this world, and those of no account, God
29 hath chosen—nay, the very nothings, to put a stop to the operation of the things which are, that no flesh might boast in
30 his presence. And it is owing to him that you are in Christ Jesus, who hath been made to us wisdom from God, namely,
31 righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption, so that as it is written, Let him who boasteth boast in the Lord."f
II. Now as for me, brethren, when I came to you, I did not come with a pomp of language or of wisdom, announcing to
* Es. 29.14. f Jer. 9. 24.
2-you the testimony of God; for I determined to know nothing
3 among you but Jesus Christ, even that crucified person; and
4 with regard to myself, I was among you in weakness and in
5 fear, and in great trembling; and my discourse and my pro- clamation was not with persuasive words of human wisdom, but with a demonstration of spirit and power, that your belief
6 might not be by the wisdom of men, but by the power of God. We, however, speak wisdom among them who are perfect,
7 but a wisdom not of this age, nor of the chiefs of this age to whose operations a stop is put; but we speak a mysterious wisdom of God* that hidden (wisdom) which God determi- nately marks out for the benefit of the ages, to our glory—
8 which none of the chiefs of this age knew (for had they known
9 it they would not have crucified the Lord of the glory)—things indeed, which as it is written, "Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, nor the heart of man conceived;"^ which God hathpre-
10 pared for them who love him; and which God hath revealed to us by his spirit. For this spirit searcheth all things, evQi
11 the depths of God. For who of mankind knoweth the things of a man, but only the spirit of the man which is in him? So no
12 one knoweth the things of God, but the spirit of God only. Now we have not received the spirit of this world, but the spirit which is from God, that we may know the things which
13 God hath freely granted to us; which things we indeed speak, not in set words of human wisdom, but in the dictated words
14 of a holy spirit, explaining spiritual things by spiritual words. Now an animal man receiveth not those dictates of the spirit of God; for they are foolishness to him, and he cannot know
15 them, because they are to be spiritually examined; but the
16 spiritual man examineth all things, and is himself examined by no man. For who hath known the mind of the Lord? Who can instruct him? As for us we have the mind of Christ.
III. Now with regard to myself, I could not, brethren, speak
1 to you as spiritual, but as carnal men, as babes in Christ. I fed
you with milk, and not with strong food, because you were
not arrived at strength; nor are you indeed yet strong, even
* Literally, wisdom of God in a miisterij. f Es. 64. 4. Vol. iv. p p
3 now. For you arc yet carnal; for while there is among you envy and strife and divisions, are you not carnal and walking
4 in the ways of man? For when one saith, I am for Paul; and another, I am for Apollos, are you not carnal? Who then is Paul? And who is Apollos? Are they any thing but mere dispensers of another's bounty, by whose means you have be-
6 lieved? Even as the Lord hath given to each, I planted, Apol-
7 los watered; but God gave the increase. So that neither the planter nor the waterer is any thing; it is God only who giveth
8 growth. Now he who planteth and he who watereth are all one; and each shall receive his peculiar reward according to
9 his peculiar labour. For we are fellow labourers belonging
10 to God; you are God's field; you are his building. According to the favour of God granted to me, I, like a skilful
11 architect, have laid a foundation, and another buildeth upon it. But let every one take heed how he buildeth thereon. For no one can lay any other foundation than that which is laid,
12 which is Jesus The Christ. Now if upon this foundation any one buildeth gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay,
13 stubble; the work of every one will be made manifest; for the day will shew it: Because it is revealed with fire, therefore
14 the fire will prove every one's work of what sort it is. If any
15 one's work which he hath built upon it, shall stand the test, he will receive a reward. If any one's work be consumed he will lose that; but he shall himself be saved but so as through fire.
16 Do you not know that you arc a temple of God, and that
17 the spirit of God dwelleth in you? If any one corrupt the temple of God, him God will destroy; for the temple of God is holy.
18 Whosoever you are, let no one deceive himself. If am one among you scemeth to be wise in this age, let him be-
19 come a fool that he may become wise. For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God: for it is written, He en-
20 tangleth the wise in their craft."* And again, "The Lord
21 knoweth the thoughts of the wise that they are vain."f Sole*
22 no one boast in men; for all things .are yours: whether Paul.
23 or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or things
* Job 5.13. fPs. 94. 11.
present, or things to come, all are yours, and you are Christ's and Christ is God's. IV. In this manner let a man reckon us, as servants of Christ
2 and stewards of divine mysteries. Now that, which is princi-
3 pally required in a steward, is, that he he found faithful. To me indeed it is a matter of very small concern, to be tried by
4 you or by human process; nay, I will not be my own judge. For though I am not conscious to myself of an' thing amiss, yet even in that case I am not justified; but he who trieth me
5 is the Lord. So pass no judgment prematurely, until the Lord come, who will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and expose to view the counsels of the hearts, and then the praise for every one will be from God.
6 Now, brethren, I have transferred these things by a figure to Tnyself and Apollos, for your sakes, that by us you may learn not to have your minds bent upon any thing above what is written—that you may not any of you be puffed up for one
7 [teacher] against another. For who distinguisheth thee"? Or what hast thou, which thou didst not receive? Now if thou hast received, why boastest thou as if thou hadst not received?
8 You are now full! you are now rich! you have now reigned
9 without us* I wish indeed that you did reign, that we also might reign with you. For it seems as if God had exhibited us, the apostles, last on the stage as devoted to death since we
10 are made a spectacle to the world, both to angels and men.
11 IVe are fools on the account of Christ; but you are prudent in Christ: We are weak; but you are strong: you are fionourable; but we are despised:* Even at this very moment we are hungry and thirsty and naked and buffeted, and are wandering about
12 and weary, working widi our own hands. Being reviled we
13 give good words; being persecuted we suffer patiently; being defamed we exhort. We are become as it were the expiatory
14 sacrifices of the world—the refuse of all things until now. I do not write these things to shame you, but am admonishing you as my beloved children. For though you may have ten
* What are in italics I take to be the boasts of those who set themselves up against Paul.
thousand guides in Christ, yet you have not many fathers; for
16 by means of the glad tidings I am your father in Christ Jesus.
17 Therefore I intreat you to be imitators of me. For this cause I have sent to you Timothy, who is my beloved son, and faithful in the Lord, who will remind you of my ways—those in Christ, as I am every where teaching in every congregation.
18 Now some are puffed up as if I would not come to you;
19 but I will come to you quickly, if it be the Lord's will, and I will know not the word, but the power of them who are puffed up. For the reign of God is not in word but in power.
20 What do you chuse?—that I should come to you with a V. rod, or with love and a spirit of meekness? It is currently
reported that there is among you an act of lewdness, and of such a sort as is not named among the nations, so that one
2 huth his father's wife: And you are pufted up! Why did you not rather mourn, in order that he who hath done such a deed
3 might be removed from among you? For I indeed, absent as I am in the body, but present in the spirit, have already deter-
4 mined as if I were present, with regard to him who hath done this, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when you and my
5 spirit are assembled with the power of the Lord Jesus Christ, to deliver such a one over to satan for the destruction of the
6 flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. This boasting of yours is unbecoming. Do you not know
7 that a little leaven leaveneth the whole mixture? Purge out therefore the old leaven that you may be a new mass as you are unleavened. For Christ our Paschal lamb is indeed slain
8 for us, so that we should keep the festival, not with old leaven, nor with the leaven of wickedness and malignity; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.
9 I wrote to you in that* letter not to associate with forni- cators, not including in general the fornicators of this world,
10 nor those who are immoderate in their desires, or rapacious,
11 or idolaters; since in that case you must needs have gone out of the world. But this is what I now write to you, that if any one named a brother, be a fornicator, or one who gratifieth
* Referring to & letter he had formerly written.
immoderate desires, or an idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard,
12 you are not to associate; no, nor eat with such a one. For what have I to do with passing sentence on those who are without? Is not this the case? On those within you are to pass
13 sentence, and God will pass sentence on those without. Therefore remove the wicked person from among yourselves.
VI. Dare any of you having a controversy with another sub-
2 mit it tova trial before the unrighteous, and not before the saints? Do you not know that the saints are to judge the world? If then the world is to be judged by you, are you
3 unworthy to judge petty causes? Do you not know that we shall judge angels? Can we not then things which concern
4 this life? If you therefore have controversies relating to affairs of this life, do you appoint those to be judges who are held
5 in no esteem by the congregation? To your shame I say, is it so that there is not among you a wise man—not so much as
6 one who can determine a cause between brethren; but bro-
7 ther goeth to law with brother and that before unbelievers? Now, then, it is indeed a disparagement to you that you have
8 law suits among yourselves. Why do you not rather suffer wrong? Why do you not rather suffer loss? Instead of this
9 you yourselves do wrong, and defraud even your brethren. Do you not know that the unjust shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived; neither fornicators, nor idola-
10 ters, nor adulterers, nor the voluptuous, nor sodomites, nor thieves, nor such as indulge inordinate desires, nor drunk-
11 ards, nor railers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God. Now such some of you were; but, you have washed yourselves; but you are hallowed, but you are acquitted by the name of the Lord Jesus and by the spirit of our God.
12 (a) Are all things lawful forme!
(b) All things however are not expedient.
(a) Are all things lawful for me!
(b) I however will not be a slave to any thing.
13 (a) Meats are for the belly, and the belly for meats!
(a) Arguments used by the Corinthian backsliders to justify their conduct. (b) The apostle's answer.
(b) But God will put a stop to the operation of both— But as for the body, it is not for fornication, but for the Lord;
14 and the^Lord for the body: And as God hath raised up the
15 Lord, he will by his power raise up you also. Do you not know that your bodies are members 'of Christ? Shall I then take the members of the Christ, and make them members of
16 a harlot? Surely no. Do you not know that he who is joined to the harlot is one body with her? For the scripture saith,
17 "They two shall be one flesh."* Now he who is joined to die
18 Lord is one spirit with him. Flee fornication. Every other sin, which a man committeth, is without the body; but he
19 who committeth whoredom sinneth against his own body. Do you not know that your body is a temple of a holy spirit
20 in you, which you have from God? Indeed you are not your own; for'you have been bought with a price. Therefore glorify God with your body and with your spirit which arc his.
VII. Now with respect to those matters about which you
2 wrote to me, it is well for a man not to marry: but to avoid
3 fornication let every man have his own wife; and every woman her own husband. Let the husband render due benevo-
4 lencc to the wife; and in like manner the wife to the husband. The wife hath not the power over her own body; but the husband: And in like manner the husband hath not the power
5 over his own body; but the wife. Withdraw not from each other, unless by mutual consent for a time, that you may devote yourselves to fasting and prayer. Then come together
6 again that satan may not tempt you through your incontinence.
Now this I say by way of counsel, not of command;
7 for I wish all men to be as I myself am. But every one hath his peculiar gift from God, some of one kind; and some, of
8 another. I say then to unmarried men and to widows, it is
9 well for them if they continue as I do. But if they have not the gift of continency, let them marry; for it is better to marry
10 than to burn. And to them who are married I give this in-
11 junction—not I but the Lord: That a wife separate not herself from her husband; but if she hath actually separated, let her continue unmarried, or be reconciled to her husband; and that a husband put not away a wife.
* Gen. 2. 24.
12 And to the rest I say, not the Lord; if any brother hath an unbelieving wife, and she is well satisfied to live with him,
13 let him not divorce her: and if any woman hath an unbelieving husband, and he is well satisfied to live with her, let her not
14 divorce him. For the unbelieving husband is hallowed by the wife, and the unbelieving wife is hallowed by the husband;
15 else your children would be unclean; whereas they are now holy. But if the unbelieving withdraw; let him or her with-
16 draw, the brother or the sister is not in such cases enslaved: But God hath called us to peace. For how knowestthou, O wife, but thou mayst save thy husband? Or how knowest thou, O husband, but thou mayst save thy wife?
17 But as God hath distributed to every one—as the Lord hath called every one, so let him walk. And thus I enjoin in all the
18 congregations. Hath any one been called, being circumcised, let him not become uncircumcised. Hath any been called in
19 a state of uncircumcision, let him not be circumcised. The circumcision is nothing, and the uncircumcision is nothing,
20 in comparison with keeping the commandments of God. In
21 whatever state any one hath been called, in that let him abide. Hast thou been called being a slave, let it not give thee con-
22 cern. But if thou canst be made free, chuse that rather. For he who is called by the Lord, being a slave, is the Lord's freedman; and in like manner he who is called being free, is
23 the vassal of Christ. You have been bought with a price, be-
24 come not slaves of men. Brethren, in whatever state any one hath been called, in that let him continue with God.
25 Now with respect to the virgins, I have no commandment of the Lord; but I give an opinion as one who hath obtained
26 mercy of the Lord to be faithful. I think then this to be good on account of the impending distress; that it is well for a man
27 to be as he is. Art thou bound to a wife? seek not to be dis-
28 engaged: Art thou disengaged from a wife, seek not a wife. But if thou shouldst actually marry, thou hast not sinned; and if the virgin many she hath not sinned. But such will have affliction in the flesh: But I spare you and say this, brethren, that the time with regard to what remaineth, is shortened, so that they who have wives should be as if they had them not;
30 and they who weep, as if they wept not; and they who re-
31 joice, as if they rejoiced not; and they who buy, as not possessing; and they who use this world, as not using it immo-
32 derately. For the scenery of this world is shifting; and I wish
33 you to be free from anxious cares. He who is unmarried careth for the things of the Lord how he may please the Lord;
34 but he who is married careth for the things of the world, how he may please his wife. There is the like difference between the wife and the virgin. The unmarried careth for the things of the Lord, that she may be holy both in body and spirit; but she who is married careth for the things of the world,
35 how she may please her husband. Now this I say for your own benefit, not with a view to lay a snare for you; but for that which is becoming and best adapted to a steady, uninterrupted
36 adherence to the Lord. But if any man thinketh that he bring- eth reproach* on his virgin; if she be past the prime, this then should bef the rule, What she willeth, let him do, he doth not
37 sin; let them marry: but whoever hath come to a. fixed deter- mination in his heart, using no constraint, but hath power with respect to his own will and hath determined in his heart
38 to keep his virgin, he doth well. So that he who giveth in marriage doth well, but he who giveth not in marriage doth better.
39 A wife is bound by law as long as her husband liveth; but if her husband die; she is at liberty to many whom she will—only in the Lord. But she is happier, if she continue as she is. This is my opinion, and I think I have a spirit of God.
VIII. Now with regard to the things offered to idols, we
2 know that we all have knowledge."^. (This knowledge puffeth up; but love edifieth. If then any one thinketh that he know-
3 eth any thing, he knoweth nothing yet as he ought to know.
* Sec Esaias 4.1. f Literally, thus it ought to be.
What is here in italics I take to be the reasoning of those who set themselves up in opposition to the apostle.
But if any one loveth God by him he is acknowledged.)
4 Therefore in respect to the eating of things offered to idols, we know that an idol is nothing in the world: andtluit there is no other
5 God but one. for though there arc nominal gods both in heaven 6' and on earth, as there are many gods and many lords; yet to us
there is out one God, the father of all, of whom are all things and we for him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things and we by him.*" But all have not this knowledge; and some, with the consciousness of regard for the idol, even to this
7 time eat meat as sacrificed to an idol; and their conscience be-
8 ing weak is defiled. Now food doth not recommend us to God. For if we eat we are not the better; nor are we the worse if we
9 do not eat. But take heed that this liberty of yours do not 10 prove a stumbling block to the weak. For if one seeth thee
who hast knowledge seated at table in an idol temple, will not
the conscience of him who is weak be emboldened to eat the
1 1 idol sacrifice? And shall the weak brother, for whom Christ
12 died, be destroyed for thy knowledge? When you sin thus
13 against the brethren and wound their weak conscience, you sin against Christ. Wherefore if meat cause my brother to stumble, I will never eat flesh that I may not cause my brother to stumble.
IX. Am not I an apostle? Am not I free? Have not I seen
2 Jesus Christ our Lord? Are not you my work in the Lord?
If to others I am not an apostle, yet surely I am to you. For
your being in the Lord is the seal of my apostleship. My answer
*3 to them who examine me is this — Have we not a power to
4 eat and drink? Have we not a power to take along with us a
5 sister-wife as well as the other apostles, and the brethren of
6 the Lord, and Cephas? Or are I only and Barnabas excluded
7 from the privilege of not working? Who goeth to war any time at his own expenses? Who planteth a vineyard and eat- eth not of the fruit thereof? Who feedeth a flock and doth not
8 eat of the milk of that flock? Do I say these things according
9 to the custom of human affairs? Doth not the law say the same? For in the law of Moses it is written, "Thou shalt not muz-
* What is in italics I take to be the apology made by some Co-. rinthian teachei: for eating things offered to idols. VOL. IV.
10 zle an ox treading out corn."* Is God solicitous for oxen?Or doth he not unquestionably say this for our sake? For us indeed i^ was written, because he who plougheth ought t plough in hope; and he who thresheth in hope ought to par-
11 take of his hope. If we have sown for you spiritual things 5
12 it a great matter if we reap your carnal things? If others eser else this power over you, may not we rather? But we ban not made use of this power; but endure all tilings that m
13 may not give any obstruction to the glad tidings of the Chris. Do you not know that they who prepare the sacrifice eat oi
14 the sacrifice? They who attend on the altar partake with the
15 altar. So also the Lord hath ordered for them who proclaim the glad tidings, that they should live by the glad tidings But as for me I have not made use of any of these privileges nor have I written these things that they should be a rule for me. For it were better for me to die than that any should dc-
16 prive me of what is my boast. For though I publish the gbc tidings I have no cause of boasting; for I am under an ohli
17 gation and woe is for me if I do not publish the glad tiding
18 for if I do this willingly, I have a reward; but if against m will I have been intrusted with an office, what then is the reward for me? In this case, when proclaiming the glad tiding I will make the glad tidings of the Christ so far une xpensive, not to use to the utmost the privilege which I have by tht
19 glad tidings. For being free from all men, I have made myscli
20 a slave to all that I may gain the more. To the Jews I became as a Jew that I might gain the Jews: to them under law, as i>
21 I were under law, that I might gain those under law: to them without law, as if I were without law (not as without law t1 God, but under a law to Christ) that I might gain those with-
22 out law: To the weak I became as weak, that I might gab the weak—to all those I have become all this that I may sau
23 all.f And this I do in consequence of the glad tidings that
24 may be a joint sharer thereof.
Do you not know that they who run a race, all run; bu:
* Dent. 25. 4.
| That I may save all is the reading of sundry ancient and aj' proved manuscripts, and of the Syriac and vulgate translation*-
one only rcceiveth the prize? *In this manner run ye, that you may obtain. Now, every one who is to contend in the public games is temperate in all things. They indeed do this that they may obtain a corruptible crown. But we, [to obtain] one that is incorruptible. For my part, therefore, I run in this manner, not as if I were running unseen: I fight, not as if I were beating the air; but I buftet my body and subdue it, lest having proclaimed the glad tidings to others I myself
should be disapproved. Moreover, I would not, brethren, have you ignorant that our fathers were all under the cloud, and that they all passed through the sea, and were all baptized to Moses in the cloud and in the sea; and did all eat the same spiritual food; and did all drink of the same spiritual drink, for they drank from a spiritual rock accompanying them; now that rock was the Christ. But with the greater part of them God was not well pleased; for they were overthrown in the wilderness. Now these things were examples for us, that we may not lust after evil things as they did. Be not ye then idolaters as some of them were; as it is written, "The people sat down to eat and drink and rose up to play:"* Nor let us commit fornication as some of them did, and there fell in one day twenty three thousand: nor let us try the Christ as some indeed of them did, and were destroyed by serpents: nor murmur ye, as some of them murmured and were destroyed by the destroyer. Now all these things came upon them for examples, and were written for the instruction of us on whom the ends of the ages have met. So let him who thinketh that he standeth, take heed that he do not fall.
No trial hath come upon you but such as is common to
man; and God is faithful, and will not suffer you to be tried
above your strength, but will with the trial make a way to
i escape, that you may be able to bear it. Therefore, my beloved,
> flee from idolatry. 1 speak to you as men of understanding;
> judge ye what I say—The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not a fellowship in the blood of the Christ? The loaf which we
I break, is it not a Fellowship in the body of the Christ? Because
*Ex. 32. 6. 19.
it is one loaf, we being many are one body, for we ail partake of
18 this one loaf. Consider Israel according to the flesh; are not
19 they who eat the sacrifices, partakers in common of the altar. What then, do I say that an idol is any thing? or that what is
20 sacrificed to an idol is any thing? No. I only say, that what the nations sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons and not to God.
21 Now, I would not have you to be partakers in the \vofship of the demons. You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons. You cannot partake of the table of the Lord
22 and of the table of demons. Are we provoking the Lord to
23 jealousy? Are we stronger than he?
(a) ''All things are lawful for me."
(b) All things however are not expedient,
(a) '''All things-are lawful for me."
24 (b) All things however do not edify. Let none seek bare-
25 ly his own interest, but every one that of his neighbour. Eat whatever is sold in the shambles, asking no questions for con-
26 science sake; for the earth is the Lord's and the fulness thereof.
27 And if any of the disbelievers invite you to an entertainment, and you chuse to go, eat whatever is set before you, asking no
28 questions for conscience sake. But if any one say to you, This was sacrificed to an idol, eat not of it for the sake of him who gave the information; and for conscience sake; for the earth is
29 the Lord's and the fulness thereof. When 1 say conscience I do not mean one's own, but the conscience of the other.
30 (a) But why is my liberty to be judged by another's conscience? And if I partake with thankfulness, why am I ill spoken of for -what I give thanks?
31 (b) Whether then you eat or drink, or whatever you do,
32 do all to the glory of God. Conduct yourselves so as to give no offence to Jews or Greeks, or the congregation of God, even as I do. In all things I please all men, not studying barely my own interest, but that of the many, that they may be saved. Be ye imitators of me as I am of Christ.
XI. Now, I praise you, brethren, that in all things you are 2 mindful of me and hold fast the doctrines as I delivered them
(a) Arguments used by the Corinthians. (b) The apostle's
3 to you; and I wish you to know that the Christ is the head of
4 every man; and that the head of woman is the man; and the head oi Christ is God. Every man praying or pro-
5 phesying* with his head covered dishonoured! his head; and every woman praying or prophesying* with the head uncovered dishonoureth her head; for it is the same as if
G she were shaven. For if a woman is not veiled, let her be shorn. But if it be shameful for a woman to be shorn or
7 shaved, let her be veiled. For man indeed ought not to have his head covered, he being an image and a glory of God; but
8 woman is a glory of man; for man was not made of woman; but woman of man. Nor was man created for the woman;
9 but woman for the man. The woman, therefore, ought
0 to have a covering on the head, because of the messengers.
1 Nevertheless, man is not without woman, nor woman with- .2 out man in the Lord. For as the woman was of the man, so
also the man is by the woman; and all things are of God.
L3 Judge for yourselves. Is it. becoming for a woman unveiled
14 to pray to God? Doth not nature itself teach you that if a
L5 man hath long hair, it is a shame to him; but if a woman
L6 hath long hair it is a glory to her; because the hair is given
her for a veil. If any one, however, is disposed to be conten
tious, neither we nor the congregations have any such custom.
17 But in regard to this which I am about to mention I do not commend you, because you meet together not for the bct-
18 ter but for the worse. For in the first place, on your assembling together in the congregation, I hear that there are di-
19 visions among you; and I partly believe it: for there must be
20 sects among you, that the approved among you may become manifest. When you therefore assemble together, it is not to
21 eat the Lord's supper; for every one at eating taketh first his
22 own supper,t so one indeed is hungry and another is plentifully fed. What! have you not houses for eating and drinking? Or do you despise the congregation of God, and expose to shame them who have not? What must I say to you? Shall I com-
* The Greek word -n-ftipmivu signifies to declare any truth, not discoverable by the natural powers of man. See Mat. 26. 68; or to declare truths through the inspiration of God's holy spirit, whether by prediction or not; and means speaking or teaching by inspiration. See 1 Cor. 14. 13, 14, &c.
f In order to understand this it is necessary to observe, that among the Grecians it was customary for companies to meet and, eat together, but every one brought his own provisions.
23 mend you for this? I do not commend you. For I received from the Lord this which I delivered to you, that the Lord
24 Jesus on the night in which he was delivered up, took a loaf, and having given thanks, broke it, and said, "Take, eat; this
25 is my body which is broken for you. Do this in commemoration of me." And in like manner, the cup also, after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant by my blood. Do this,
26 as often as you drink it, in commemoration of me. For as of-
27 ten as you eat this loaf, and drink this cup, you proclaim the death of the Lord, until he come." So that whosoever shall eat this loaf or drink this cup of the Lord in an unworthy
28 manner, he will be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. Now, let a man examine himself, and in this manner eat of
29 that loaf and drink of that cup; for he who eateth and drink - eth in an unworthy manner, eateth and drinketh a judgment
30 for himself, not distinguishing the body of the Lord. For this
31 cause many among you are weakly and sick, and many are
32 falling asleep. For if we distinguish ourselves, should we not be judged? And being judged, we are corrected by the Lord,
33 that we may not be condemned with the world. Wherefore, my brethren, when you assemble to eat, wait for one another; and if any one is hungry let him eat at home, that you may not come together for judgment. And the rest I will set in order when I come.
XII. Now, brethren, I would not have you ignorant with re-
2 spect to the spiritual gifts. You know that you were Gentiles
3 carried away to dumb idols just as you were led. Therefore I certify to you that none speaking by a spirit of God saith
4 that Jesus is an Anathema;* and that none can say that Jesus
5 is the Lord, but by a holy spirit. Now, there are diversities
6 of gifts,,but the same spirit; and there are diversities of offices, but the same Lord; and there are diversities of energies, but
* A solemn execration among the Jews; meaning, Let his name, or memory, be blotted out.
it is the same God who by his inward operation worketh all
7 these effects in all. Now, this manifestation of the spirit is
8 given to every one for that which is profitable. For to one is given, by the spirit, a word of wisdom; and to another, a word of knowledge according to the same spirit; and to another, faith,
9 by the same spirit; and to another, gifts of healing, by the same
10 spirit; and to another, mighty powers of working miracles;* and to another, the gift of prophecy ;f and to another, that of discerning spirits; and to another, divers languages; and to
11 another, the interpretation of languages. Now, it is one and the same spirit who effecteth all these, distributing his own as
12 he pleaseth, to every one. For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being
13 many, are one body; so also is the Christ. For by one spirit we are all baptized to one body, whether we were Jews or
14 Greeks, slaves, or freemen; and have all been made to drink to
15 one spirit. For the body is not one member, but many. If the foot should say, "Because I am not a hand, I am not of
16 the body," is it therefore not of the body? And if the ear
17 should say, "Because I am not an eye, I am not of the body," is it therefore not of the body?" If the whole body were eye, where would, be the hearing? If the whole were hearing,
18 where would be the smelling? But now God hath placed the
19 members, every one of them, in the body, as it hath pleased
20 him. But if they were all one member, where would be the
21 body? Now they indeed are many members, yet one body: and the eye cannot say to the hand, I have no need of thee:
22 nor can the head say to the feet, I have no need of you. On
23 the contrary, those members of the body which seem to be the weakest are more especially necessary; and on those which we think the more dishonourable parts of the body we bestow the more abundant honour: and the uncomely parts of us have more abundant finery, of which the comely parts have
24 no need. God indeed hath formed the symmetry of the body,
25 giving more abundant honour to the part which wanteth it, that there may be no schisms in the body, but that the mem-
* Literally, energies. | See before, ch. 11. 5.
26 bers may have mutual concern for one another; so that if one member suffereth, all the rest suffer with it; and if one member is honoured, all the rest rejoice with it.
27 Now with regard to you, ye are a body of Christ, even
28 individual members, whom God hath placed in the congregation; first, apostles, secondly, prophets, thirdly, teachers, then miraculous powers, then gifts of healing, helps, governments,
29 different languages. Are all apostles? Are all prophets'? Are all teachers? Have all miraculous powers? Have all the gifts of healing? Do all speak divers languages? Are all interpreters? But you arc ambitious of those gifts which are of superior excellence.* Well, I am going to point out to you a way still more excellent.
XIII. Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels,
2 if I have not love, I am but a sounding brass or a tinkling cymbal; and though I have a gift of prophesy and understand all the mysteries and all this knowledge; and though I have
3 all that faith, so as to remove mountains; if I have not love, I am nothing. And though I distribute all my substance to feed the poor, and deliver up my body to be burned, if I have not
4 love, it profiteth me nothing. Love is long suffering; it abour.d- eth in kindness. Love is not envious. Love is not insolent: it
5 is not puffed up. It doth not behave itself unbecomingly. It
6 is not self interested. It is not easily provoked. It placeth not
7 the evil to account. It rejoiceth not in iniquity, but shareth in the joys of truth. It beareth all things. It believeth all
8 things. It hopeth all things. It endureth all things patiently. Love never fuileth. But as for prophecies, they will be out of
9 use. As for languages, they will cease: As for science, it will
10 be done away. For we now know in part and prophesy in part,
11 but when perfection is come, there will a stop be put to that which is in part. When I was a child, I spake as a child, I thought as a child, I reasoned as a child; but when I became
12 a man, I put a stop to childish things. For we now by means of a mirrour see a representation of things; but we shall then see face to face. I now know in part; but I shall then know
* See ch. 14. v. 152. This is an apology thrown in to which he answers, Well, &c.
L3 as I am known. Now then these three, faith, hope and love,
K.1V. will remain; but love is the greatest of the three. Be
zealous then in the pursuit of this love, and aspire after spiri-
2 tual gifts, but chiefly that you may prophesy. For he who
speaketh in a strange language, speaketh not to men but to
God: for none understandeth; and with a spirit he speaketh
S mysteries. But he who prophesieth, speaketh to men edifica-
4 tion, and exhortation, and consolation. He who speaketh in an unknown tongue edifieth himself; but he who prophesieth,
5 edifieth a congregation. Now I wish you all to speak with tongues; but much rather that you should prophesy: For he who prophesieth is greater than he who speaketh with tongues, unless some one interpret, that the congregation may be edi-
6 fied. For instance, should I, brethren, come to you, speaking with tongues, what shall I profit you, unless I explain to you
7 what I say, be it either a revelation, or science, or a prophecy, or a doctrine.* In like manner with regard to inanimate things which give a sound, whether pipe or kithara, unless they produce distinct notes, how can it be known what that is, which is
8 played on the pipe or kithara. For if even a trumpet give an undistinguishable sound who will prepare himself for bat-
9 tie? So also with regard-to you, unless you utter with the tongue a discourse of a clear signification, how can that which
10 is spoken be known? You will be indeed talking to the air. Let there be ever so many kinds of sounds in the world, and
11 none of them without signification, if I do not know the meaning of the sound I shall be to the speaker a barbarian, and he
12 who speaketh will be the same to me. Such also is the case with you. Since you then are ambitious of spiritual gifts, seek to abound in such as tend to the improvement of the
13 congregation. Let him therefore who speaketh in an un-
14 known tongue, pray that he may interpret. For if I pray in an unknown tongue, my spirit prayeth, but my understand-
15 ing is unfruitful. What then is to be done? I am to pray with
* Literally, if I should come to you speaking with tongues either
by revelation or by knowledge, or by prophecy, or by doctrine,
.what should I profit you unless I spoke to you.
Vol. iv. R r
the spirit and to pray with the understanding also. I am to sing with the spirit, and to sing with the understanding also.
16 Otherwise if thou bless with the spirit, how can he who oc- cupieth the place of the unlearned say Amen at thy giving
17 thanks, when he knoweth not what thou sayest? Thou indeed givest thanks well, but the other is not edified.
18 I thank my God, I speak with tongues more than you all;
19 but in a congregation I would rather speak five words with my understanding that I may instruct others, than ten. thou-
20 sand words in an unknown tongue. Brethren, be not chil-
21 drcn in your understandings; but be infants in malice; and in your understandings full grown men. It is written in the law, "By men of strange tongues and with strange lips I will speak to this people; yet for all this they will not hearken to
22 me, saith the Lord."* So that these strange tongues are for a sign, not for them who believe; but for unbelievers. But
23 prophesying is not for unbelievers, but for them who believe. If therefore the whole congregation assemble and all speak with unknown tongues, and there should come in any unin-
24 structed persons or unbelievers, would they not say that you are raving? But if all prophesy, and any unbeliever or unin-
25 structed person come in, he is convicted by all; examined by all; and thus the secrets of his heart are laid open, and so, falling on his face, he will worship God, declaring that God is indeed among you.
26 What then, brethren, is to be done? When you come together every one of you hath a psalm; hath a doctrine; hath a strange tongue; hath a revelation; hath an interpretation; let
27 all be for edification; and if any one speak in an unknown tongue, let him speak as by two, or at the most three; and in
28 parts, and let one interpret: but if there be no interpreter, let him be silent in a congregation, and speak to himself and
29 to God. And let two or three prophets speak, and let the rest
30 deliberate. And if a revelation be made to another who is sit-
31 ting, let the first have become silent. For you can all pro
32 phesy, one by one, that all may learn, and all be comforted,
33 And the spirits of prophets are subject to prophets. For God is not a God of confusion, but of peace.
* Es. 28. 11. 4. Deut. 23. 49. Jer. 5. 15.
34, As in all the congregations of the saints let your women be silent in these congregations: for they are not permitted to
35 talk, but to be in subjection, as the law alsosaith: And if they wish to learn any thing let them ask their husbands at home. For it is shameful for women to talk in a congregation.
36 Did the word of God go forth from you? or did it come
37 to you only? If any one be, in reality, a prophet, or a spiritual man, let him acknowledge that what I write to you are the
38 commandments of the Lord. But if any one doth not know this, let him continue ignorant.
39 So then, brethren, be ambitious of prophesying, and prohibit not the speaking with tongues. Let all things be done in a becoming and orderly manner.
XV. I now, brethren, remind you in what terms I proclaimed the gospel which I proclaimed to you, and which you re-
2 ceived, and in which you have continued, and by which also you are saved, if you strictly adhere to it, unless indeed you
3 believed in vain. For I delivered to you, as one of the principal things, that which I actually received, that Christ died for
4 our sins, according to the scriptures; and that he was buried;
5 and that he was raised up the third day according to the scrip-
6 tures; and that he was seen by Cephas, then, by the twelve; after that he was seen by above five hundred brethren at once, of whom the greater number are even now alive, but some indeed
7 are composed to rest; after that he was seen by James, then by
8 all the apostles; and, last of all, he was seen also by me, who
9 am as it were one born out of due time; for I am the very
10 least of the apostles, and am not worthy to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the congregation of God. But by the favour of God I am what I am; and this favour of his which reached me was not fruitless; but I have laboured more than they all; yet not I, but the grace of God which was with me.
11 Whether therefore I or they laboured, thus do we proclaim, and thus you have believed.
12 Now, if Christ be proclaimed, that he hath been raised from the dead, how do some* among you say that there is
* These were of the sect of the Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection of the dead, or future state.
13 no resurrection of the dead? If there is indeed no resurrection
14 of the dead, then Christ is not raised. And if Christ hath not
15 been raised, our proclamation is vain, and your belief is also vain. And we are found to be actually false witnesses of God; because we have testified concerning God, that he hath raised
16 the Christ, whom he hath not raised, if indeed the dead are not
17 raised. For if the dead are not raised, then Christ was not
18 raised. And if Christ hath not been raised, your belief is 19> vain; you are still in your sins; and consequently they, who
have been composed to rest in Christ, have perished. If we have hope in Christ in this life only, we, of all men, are most
20 to be pitied. But nowChrist hath been raised from the dead. He was the first fruits of th'em who have been composed to
21 rest. For since by man came death, by man also cometh a
22 resurrection of the dead. For as by Adam all die, so by the
23 Christ all shall be brought to life: but every one in his pro-
24 per order—Christ the first fruits; then they who belong to Christ, at his coming: then the end, when he shall deliver up the kingdom to God the father, when he shall have put a stop
25 to all empire and all authority, and all power. For he must
26 reign until he hath put all the enemies under his feet. The last enemy, death, is to be destroyed: for he hath put all under his
(a) "But when it issaid, That all are subjected; itisevident
28 that there is an exception of him who subjected the all to him; and when the all are subjected to him, then will the Son himself also be subjected to him who subjected the all to him that
29 God may be the all in all. This being the case what will they do who are baptized for the dead? If they who are altogether dead are not raised up, why are they then baptized for the
SO dead? and why are we every hour incurring danger—I dying daily? I swear by that boasting of yours" (meaning that which
32 I have in Christ Jesus our Lord) "if I as a man had fought with beasts at Ephesus, what advantage is that to me if the dead are not raised up? Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die."
(a) From this to v. 33, all except the parenthesis, I take to be a repetition of the scoffs and reasonings of the aforementioned Sad- ducees: that it is not the language oi" the apostle appears evident
J3 Be not led astray; "good morals are debauched by talk
54 profane."* Be righteously sober and sin not. For some have
J5 not a knowledge of God. I say this to your shame. But a
certain person will say, How are the dead raised, and with
56 what sort of a body do they come? Simpleton! that which
57 thou thyself sowest is not quickened unless it dieth. And as to what thou sowest, thou sowest not the body which is to be,
38 but a bare grain, for instance, of wheat, or of any other seeds: and God giveth it a body as it hath pleased him, and to every
39 of the seeds its own peculiar body. All flesh is not of the 10 same sort; but there is one sort of flesh peculiar to men; another to beasts, and another to fishes, and another to birds. There are also celestial bodies, and terrestrial bodies. But the
U glory of the celestial is of one sort, and the glory of the terrestrial, of another. The glory of the sun is of one kind; and the glory of the moon, of another; and the glory of the stars
12 is different: One star differeth from another in glory. Thus it is also with respect to the resurrection of the dead. That which
13 is sown, is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption; it U is sown in dishonour; it is raised in glory: it is sown in weakness; it is raised in power: it is sown an animal body; it is raised a spiritual body. There is an animal body; and there is
15 a spiritual body. Thus also it is written, "The first man Adam was made a living soul."f The latter Adam is a quickening
16 spirit. The spiritual was not first, but the animal; then the
17 spiritual. The first man from the earth was earthy; the second
18 man is the Lord from heaven. As the earthy was, such also
19 are they who are earthy. And as the heavenly is, such shall they be who are heavenly. And as we have borne the image of
50 the earthy, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly. Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the
51 kingdom of God; nor can corruption inherit incorruption. Behold I tell you a secret: We shall not all be composed to
—1. From the form of common swearing therein contained, which the apostle explains in a parenthesis. 2. From the severe reprehension in his answer, charging it with profaneness; and, 3. From his quoting another objection of, (I apprehend), the same scoffer. * A quotation from a Greek poet. f Gen. 2- ?
52 rest; but we shall all be changed in a moment—in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet, for it will sound, and the
53 dead will be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. For this corruptible must put on incorruptibility; and thb
54 mortal must put on immortality. Now when this corruptible shall have put on incorruptibility; and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then will be brought to pass the word which is written,
55 "Death is completely swallowed up."* O death where is thy sting?
Where thy victor)', O grave?
56 Sin is indeed the sting of death; And the law is the strength of sin:
57 But thanks be to God who gives us the victory Through our Lord Jesus Christ.
58 So then, my beloved brethren, be ye stedfast, immoveable, abounding always in the work of the Lord, for as much as you know that your labour in the Lord is not in vain.
XVI. Now, widi respect to the collection which is for the saints, as I have directed in the congregation of Galatia, so do
2 ye also. Every first day of the week, let every one of you lay by him, and put into a common treasury, what he can conveniently; that when I come there may be no collection then
3 made. And when I come, whomsoever you approve, them I
4 will despatch with letters to carry your bounty to Jerusalem. And if it be thought proper that I myself should go, they
5 shall go with me. Now I will come to you when I have passed through Macedonia, (for I am going through Mace-
6 donia) and perhaps I may continue with you some time, or even spend the winter, that you may forward me on in what-
7 ever journey I may take. For I do not wish to see you now on my way, but hope to spend some time with you, if the
8 Lord permit. But I will stay at Ephesus until the pentecost,
9 for a great and effectual door is opened for me, though there
10 are many opposers. Now whenTimothy comes to you, see that he be with you without fear; for he worketh the work of the
11 Lord, as I myself do. Therefore let none despise him; but
- * Es. 25. 8.
forward him on in peace, that he may come to me; for I wait
12 for him with the brethren. Now with respect to Apollos the brother, I importuned him much to go to you with the brethren. Though upon the whole it was not his will to go now, yet he will go when there shall be a favourable opportunity.
13 Watch; stand firm in the faith; acquit yourselves like
14 men; be strong; let all your affairs be transacted with love.
15 And I intreat you, brethren, (you know the household of Stephanas, that it is the first fruits of Achaia, and that they have
16 addicted themselves to the service of the saints;) that you submit yourselves to such, and to every fellow worker and labourer.
17 Now I rejoice at the coming of Stephanas, and Fortuna- tus, and Achaicus, because they have supplied to the full
18 what was wanting on your part. For they have quieted my spirit as well as yours. Have regard therefore to such as these.
19 The congregations of Asia salute you. Aquilas, and Pris- cilla; and the congregation at their house, salute you with
20 much affection in the Lord. All the brethren salute you. Salute ye one another with a holy kiss.
21 The salutation of me Paul with my own hand—If any one loveth not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be an Anathema. Maranatha.* The favour of the Lord Jesus Christ be with you. My love be with you all in Christ Jesus. Amen.
* The words Anathema, Maranatha, were terms used by the Jews when they excommunicated a person.