I. PAUL, an apostle, not from men, nor by man, but by Jc-

2 sus Christ, and God the Father who raised him from the

3 dead; and all the brethren with me, to the congregations of

4 Galatia; favour be to you and peace from God the father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ, who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from the present evil age, according

5 to the will of our God and Father, to whom be the glory for the ages of the ages. Amen.

6 I am astonished that you are so soon carried away, to another message of peace, from him who by the favour of Christ

7 called you: which is owing to nothing but this, that there are some who trouble you, and wish to pervert the glad tidings of

8 the Christ. But if we, or an angel from heaven, proclaim to you as glad tidings any thing different from what we have proclaimed to you, let him be an anathema. As we said before,

9 so I now say again, If any one teach you as glad tidings any thing different from what you have received, let him be an

10 anathema. For do I now conciliate the favour of men rather than of God? Or do I seek to please men? For if I still pleased men, I would not be a servant of Christ.

11 Now I certify to you, brethren, that the message of glad

12 tidings which I proclaimed is not according to man; for I neither received it from man, nor was I taught it; but by

13 revelation of Jesus Christ. For you have heard of my beiia viour formerly in the Jewish religion; that I, in the most vio lent manner, persecuted the congregation of God, and rava-

14 ged it; and that I made a greater proficiency in Judaism than many fellow students of my age, in my own nation, being

15 more abundantly a zealot for the doctrines of my fathers: but when it pleased God, who had set me apart from my birth,

16 and by his special favour called me, to reveal his son to me, that I might proclaim the good tidings of him among the nations immediately; I did not consult flesh and blood, nor did

17 I go up to Jerusalem to them who were apostles before me, but went away to Arabia, and returned again to Damascus.

18 Then, after three years, I went up to Jerusalem to visit Peter,

19 and abode with him fifteen days. But I did not see any other

20 of the apostles, save James the brother* of the Lord. Now as to what I write to you, behold, God is witness that I do not

21 -lie. Then I went to the regions of Syria, and Cilicia, and was

22 personally unknown to the Christian congregations of Judea,

23 who had only heard that he who formerly persecuted us is now proclaiming the glad tidings of that belief which he was

24 formerly destroying, and they glorified God on my account. II. About fourteen years after, I went up again to Jerusalem

with Barnabas, and took Titus with me. I went up indeed ac-

2 cording to a revelation, and stated to the'm the glad tidings which I proclaim among the nations—privately indeed to those in high repute, that the race, which I run, or had run,

3 might in no wise be frustrate. But neither Titus who was with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised, nor

4 did I, (on account of the false brethren who had slily introduced themselves, and crept in, to spy out that liberty of ours which we have by Christ Jesus, that they might enslave us)

5 yield for a moment any submission to them, that the truth of

6 the glad tidings might continue with you. And with regard to those in hjgh repute (what they were formerly doth not concern me: God accepteth not man's person; for these men of repute added nothing to me; but, on the contrary, seeing that

7 I was intrusted with the message of glad tidings for the uncir-

* Viz. Cousin German. Among the Jews, sons of brothers or sisters were called brothers.


8 cumcision, as Peter was with that for the circumcision; for he, who had communicated power to Peter for the mission to the circumcision, communicated power also to me for the natioqs)

9 even James, and Cephas, and John, those eminent pillars, knowing the favour granted to me, gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should be for the nations, and

10 they for the circumcision, recommending only that we would remember the poor, which very thing i had indeed been for-

11 ward to do. And when Peter came to Antioch I .opposed him to his face, because he was reprehensible. For before certain

12 persons came from James, he had eaten with the Gentiles; but when they came, he withdrew, and kept himself apart, being afraid of them who were of the circumcision. And the

13 rest of the'Jews also dissembled with him, insomuch that even Barnabas was carried away with their dissimulation. But

14 when I saw that they were not walking uprightly, according to the truth of the glad tidings, I said to Peter before them all, "If.thou being a Jew mayst live after the manner of the Gentiles, and not as the Jews do, why compellest thou .the

15 Gentiles to conform to the rites of the Jews? We who are by ' 16 nature Jews, and not sinners of the Gentiles, knowing that a

man is not justified by works of law unless by means of a belief in Jesus Christ, even, we ourselves have believed in Christ Jesus, that we may be justified for a belief in Christ and -not for works of law; because for works of law no flesh can be justified. But if we, seeking to be justified by Christ, have

17 ourselves also been found sinners, is Christ then a minister of sin? Let not this be supposed." ..

18 Now if I build up again that which I pulled down I make

19 myself a transgressor. As for me, I by law died to law, that

20 I may live to God. I have been crucified with Christ, nevertheless I live—not I myself any more, but Christ liveth in me; and the life which I now live in flesh, I live by that belief which I have in the son of God, who loved me and delivered

21 up himself for me. J do not set at naught the favour of God ; for if righteousness be by means of law, Christ hath indeed died to no puqwse.

III. O inconsiderate Galatians! who hath bewitched you that

you should not obey the truth—you, before whose eyes Jesus

2 Christ crucified was evidently represented among you? I wish to learn from you this only—Did you receive the spirit for

3 works of law, or for the obedience of belief'? Are you so unwise ? Having begun with spirit are you now perfecting your-

4 selves with flesh? Have you suffered so many things in vain?

5 But if indeed in vain; doth he then, who ministereth the spirit to you abundantly, and worketh miracles among you, do this

6 for works of law, or for the obedience of belief? As Abra-

7 ham believed God, and it was reckoned to him for righteousness, know therefore, that they who are believers are children of Abraham.

8 The scripture indeed, foreseeing that God would justify the nations for belief, predicted to Abraham the glad tidings

9 [in these words-,] "By thee all the nations shall be blessed.*" So that they who are believers are blessed with the believing

10 Abraham. For as many as are of works of law are under a curse ; for it is written, " Cursed is every one who will not persevere in all that. are written in the book of the law to do

11 them.t" And that none is justified by law in the sight of God

12 is evident, for "the just shall live because of belief.^" Now the law is not because of faith, but, " The man who doth these

13 things shall live by them. V' From this curse of the law Christ hath redeemed us, being made a curse for us; (for it is written,

14 "Cursed, is every one who is suspended on a cross,||") that the blessing of Abraham might come upon the nations by Christ Jesus, that we might receive the promise of the spirit by means of this belief.

15 Brethren (I speak according to the practice of men) as no one disannulleth the covenant of a man, or superaddeth to it

16 when it is ratified; and the promises were made to Abraham and the seed of him (it is not said "and to the seeds" as if it

17 was a covenant for many, but as if for one, and to the seed of thee ; namely Christ) now this I say that the law which was four hundred and thirty yearsl after, doth not disannul a covenant ratified by God for Christ, so as to put a stop to the

*Gen. 12. 3: and 18. 18: and 22. 18. f Deut. 27. 26. t Habak. 2. 4. § Lev. 18. 5. || Deut. 21. 23. fl Exodus 12. 40.

18 promise. For if the inheritance be by law, it is no longer by promise ; but God granted it freely by promise.

19 (a) To what purpose then was the law ?

(b) On the account of transgressions it was superadded until the seed should come, to whom the promise was made ; and it was introduced through angels by the hand of a mediator ; but this mediator was not of one party.

20 (a) But God is one party ; is then the law against the promises of God?

21 (b) No by no means ; for if a law had been given which could have put into a state of life, righteousness would as-

22 suredly have been by law. But the scripture hath shut all up under sin, that the promise for belief in Jesus Christ might be

23 granted to them who believe. Now before this belief came, we were under the custody of law, shut up together for the

24 future belief to be revealed. So that the law was our tutor to

25 guide us to Christ, that we might be justified for belief. But this belief being come, we are no longer under a tutor; for

26 you are all children of God by means of this belief in Christ

27 Jesus. For as many of you as have been baptized to Christ,

28 have put on Christ, There is in him no distinction of Jew and Greek, no distinction of bondman and freeman, no distinction

29 of male and female. For you are all one in Christ Jesus. And if you are Christ's, you are then the seed of Abraham and heirs according to promise.

IV. Now I say, as long as the heir is a minor, he differeth no-

2 thing from a bondman, though he be lord of all; but is under

3 governors and guardians till the time prefixed by the Father.

4 So we also when minors were in bondage, under the elements of the world; but when the fulness of time was come, God sent forth his son, born of a woman; born under law that he

5 might redeem those under law—that we may receive the adop-

6 tion of children. And because you are children, God hath sent forth the spirit of his son into your hearts, crying Abba,

7 Father. So that thou art no longer a slave, but a son; and if a

8 son; then an heir of God through Christ. At the time indeed

(a) An objection. (b) The answer.

when you knew not God, you as slaves served things which 3 are in gods; but now when you know God, or rather when God hath owned you, how turn ye again to those weak and beggarly elements to which you degradingly desire

0 again to be in bondage as before. You observe days and

1 months and seasons and years; I am afraid for you lest I have bestowed upon you labour in vain.

2 Brethren be, I beseech you, as I, for I am as you were.

3 You have not injured me at all; and you know that when in a weakness of the flesh I proclaimed to you formerly the glad

4 tidings; with respect to that trial of mine, which I had in my flesh, you did not despise, nor with scorn reject, but received

15 me as a messe'nger of God—as Christ Jesus. What was then yqur felicitation! For I bear you witness, that if it had been

16 possible you would have pulled out your very eyes and given 7 them to me. Am I then become your enemy, because I tell

you truth? They affect a zeal for you; not in an honourable way; but they wish to exclude us, that you may be zealous 18 for them. Now it is honourable to be zealously affected towards a good man at all times, and not barely when I am present with you.

My dear children, for whom I again suffer pangs until

0 Christ be formed in you—but I wish I could this moment be with you and change the tone of my voice, for I am in doubt

1 about you—tell me ye who desire to be under law, do ye not

2 hear the law? For it is written, that Abraham had two sons,

3 one by a bondwoman, and one by a freewoman : but he indeed who was of the bondwoman, was born in the ordinary course of nature; and he who was of the freewoman, in virtue of the promise. These things have an allegorical meaning, for by these women are represented the two covenants—one from mount Sina, bringing forth for bondage; this is Hagar. (for Hagar meaneth mount Sina in Arabia*) and answereth to the present Jerusalem, who with her children is in a state

26 of bondage: but the Jerusalem above is free: this is the mo-

27 ther of us all; for it is written,

* Hagar, (which' in Arabic signifies a rock) was and still is the name of Sina among the Arabians;


Rejoice thou barren, who bearest not;

Break forth with shouts of joy,

Thou who sufferest not the pangs of childbirth,

For many more are the children of the desolate ,

Than of her who hath a husband.*

28 Now we, brethren, are children of promise, as Isaak was.

29 But as then he who was born in the ordinary course of nature

30 persecuted him who was born in a spiritual manner,' even so it is now. But what saith the scripture? " Send away this bondwoman and her son ; for the son of this bondwoman shall not share the inheritance with the son of the' freewo-

31 man.f" Now we, brethren, are not children of the bondwoman, V. but of the free; therefore stand up for the liberty with which

Christ hath made us free, and be not again entangled with a

2 yoke of bondage. Behold I Paul say" to you, that if you be

3 circumcised, Christ will avail .you nothing. And I testify again to every man who is circumcised, that he is under an

. obligation to perform the whole law. You who are justified

4 by law, have done with the Christ—you have fallen from that

5 favour. As for us then, we by the spirit entertain a hope of

6 justification for faith. For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision availeth any thing, but a belief made operative by love.

7 You were running well. Who hath stopped you from obey-

8 ing the truth? This persuasion cometh not from him who

9 called you. A little leaven leaveneth the whole mass. I have a

10 confidence in the Lord with respect to you, that you will keep your minds bent on nothing else, and that he who troubleth you, whoever he may be, will bear the blame. As for me,

11 brethren, if I still preach circumcision, why am I still persecuted? In that case the offence of the cross is done away. I

12 wish that they who are unsettling you would cut themselves

13 oft': for you, brethren, have been called to liberty; only let not that liberty be an advantage to the flesh; but be servants

14 to one another by offices of love. For the whole law is surn-

15 mcd up in this one precept, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as

* Es. 54. 1. fGen. 21. 10.

thyself. Now if you bite and devour one another, take heed

16 that you be not destroyed by one another. This then I say, walk

17 by the spirit and by no means fulfil the lust of the flesh. For the inclinations of the flesh are contrary to the spirit; and the inclinations of the spirit are contrary to the flesh; they are op-

18 posed to one another; so that you do not, what you wish; but if

19 you are led by the spirit you are not under law. Now the works

20 of the flesh are manifest—they are these—adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, fascinations, enmities,

21 strifes, emulations, .animosities, contentions, factions, sects,

envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and the like, of which I forewarn you, as I have indeed before declared that

22 they who practise such things shall not inherit the kingdom

23 of God: But the fruit of the spirit is love, joy, peace, forbear- 24. ance, gentleness, goodness, faithfulness, meekness, temper- 25 ance—against such things there is no law. Now they who be-

. long to Christ have crucified the flesh with its passions and

desires. If we live by spirit let us walk by spirit. Let us not

be vain glorious, provoking one another, envying one another.

VI. Brethren, if a m,an be overtaken in a fault, do you, who

are spiritual, set such a one right again, with a spirit of meek-

2 ness, keeping an eye on thyself, lest thou also be tempted.

3 Bear one another's burdens and so fulfil the law of the Christ.

4. For if any one thinketh himself to be something, when he is nothing, he deceiveth himself. Now let every one prove his .own work, and then he. will have his boasting for himself

5. alone and not for another. For every one shall bear his own

6 burthen. Let him who is taught the word make him who

7 teacheth a partaker in all good things. Be not deceived. God

8 is not to be imposed on; for whatever a man sovveth, that he shall reap. Because he who soweth for his flesh shall from the

9 flesh reap corruption; but he who soweth for the spirit shall from the spirit reap life everlasting; therefore let us not be wear)7 in well doing, for in due time we shall reap without

10 being tired. As we therefore have an opportunity let us do

good to all, but more especially to them who are of the household of faith.

11 You see in what large letters I have written to you with my own hand. As many as are' desirous of making a figure in flesh, these are constraining you to be circumcised, onlvtto

13 they may avoid being persecuted for the cross of the Chriit For even they themselves, being circumcised, do not ktet

14 the law; but they wish you to be circumcised that they maj boast in your flesh. But far be it from me to boast, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by which the world is cruci-

15 fiedtome and I to the world. For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision availeth any thing; but a new crea-

16 tion. And with regard to all who will walk by this rule, on them there will be peace and mercy, even upon the Israel of God.

17 For the future let no one trouble me, for on this body of mine I bear the marks of the Lord Jesus.

18 Brethren, the favour of the Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit. Amen.