A word of the Lord which came to ffosea the son of Beeri in the days of Ozias and Joatham and Achaz andEzekias kings of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam son of Joas king of Israel.

The beginning of the -word of the Lord by Hosea.

2 I. WHEN the Lord said to Hosea, " Go, take thee a wife of whoredom, and children of whoredoms, since the land is

3 going and will go a whoring from the Lord," he then went and took Gomer a daughter of Debelaim: and when she con-

4 ceived and bore him a son, the Lord said to him, " Call his name Jezrael; for yet a little while and I will avenge the blood of Jezrael on the house of Jehu, and cause the kingdom of the

5 house of Israel to cease. And it shall come to pass in that day

6 that I will break the bow of Israel in the valley of Jezrael." And when she conceived again and bore a daughter, he said to him, " Call her name, Not-compassionated; for I will no longer continue to have compassion on the house of Israel, but will set

7 myself against them. But on the children of Juda I will have compassion and I will save them by the Lord their God, and will not save them by bow nor by sword nor by battle nor by horses nor by horsemen."

8 And when she had weaned Not-compassionated, she con-

9 ceived again and bore a son, and he said, " Call his name Not-my'-people, since you are not my people and I am not your

0 God." (Now the number of the children of Israel was like the sand of the sea which cannot be measured nor counted.)

" But it shall come to pass that in the place where it vvas said to them, " You are not my people," they shall be called chilli dren of the Living God, and the children of Juda and the children of Israel shall be gathered together and shall appoint for themselves one head and come up out of the land. Because II. great will be theday of Jezrael; say ye to your brother, Mypeo-

2 pie, and to your sister, Compassionated; emplead your mother, emplead, because with regard to her, is she not my wife? And as for me, am not I her husband? Therefore I will remove her fornication from before me and her adultery from between her breasts.

3 That I may do this I will strip her naked, and reduce her to the state she was in at her birth. I will indeed make her desolate, and order her to a land without water and kill her with

4 thirst, and on her children I will not have compassion. Be-

5 cause thev are children of fornication—because their mother


hath committed whoredom—she, who brought them forth hath acted shamefully—because she said, " I will go after my lovers, who give me my bread and my water, and my apparel and my line linens, mine oil and all things convenient for me;"

6 for this behold I will hedge up her way with thorns; and block

7 up her ways that she may not find her path. Though she follow her lovers she shall not overtake them; though she seek thcnij she shall not find them. Then she will say, " I will go and return to my former husband, for it was then better with

S me than now. She indeed did not acknowledge that I gave her the corn and wine and oil; and multiplied silver for her :

9 but she made ornaments of gold and silver for Baal: therefore I will turn and take axvay my corn in its season, and my wine in its appointed time; and I will take away my garments and my fine linens, that she may not cover her nakedness :

10 and I will now disclose her impurity before her lovers ; and

11 none shall deliver her out of my hand. I will indeed turn away all her pleasures, her festivals, and her new moons and

12 her sabbaths and all her solemn assemblies. And I will lav- waste her vineyards and her fig orchards—all those things respecting which she said, " These are my rewards which my lovers gave me;" and I will make them for a memorial; and the wild beasts of the field and the birds of the air, and the

13 reptiles of the earth shall devour th*em. And I will punish her for the days of the baleims in which she sacrificed to them.

When she had put on her ear-rings and her jewels, she went

14 after her lovers and forgot me, saith the Lord; therefore behold I will cause her to wander, and order her to a wilderness and

15 speak to her heart. And thence I will give her for her possessions, even the valley of Achor to open her understanding: and she shall be humbled there as in the days of her youth, even as

16 in the days of her coming up out of the land of Egypt. And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord, that she will call

17 me My husband; and no more call me Baalim. I will indeed take away the names of thcJBaalims out of her mouth, and their

18 names shall no more be mentioned. And in that day I will make a covenant for them, with the wild beasts of the field and the birds of the air and the reptiles of the earth; and bow and sword and battle I will crush out of the land; and I will settle

19 thee securely and betroth thee to myself forever. I will indeed betroththee to myself by righteousness and by judgmcntand by

20 compassion and by tender mercies: and I will betroth thee to

21 myself by fidelity; and thou shalt acknowledge the Lord. And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord, that I will

22 hearken to the heaven, and it shall hearken to the earth, and the earth shall hear the corn and the wine and the oil, and they

23 shall hearken to Jezrael; and I will plant her for myself in the land, and love her who was not beloved; and to them who were not my people I will say, "Thou art my people:" and they will say, Thou the Lord art my God.

III. II. Again the Lord said to me, Still go and love a woman who loveth wickedness, even an adulteress, as God loveth the children of Israel, though they look to strange gods and

2 love cakes with dried grapes. Sol hired one for myself for fifteen pieces of silver and a gomar of barley and a nebel of wine,

3 and said to her, "Thou shalt continue many days for me and shalt not play the harlot nor have commerce with man, then I

4 wUl be for thee; for the children of Israel shall continue many days without a king and without a chief, and without a sacrifice and without an altar and without a priesthood, and with-

5 out manifestations; and afterwards the children of Israel will return and seek the Lord their God, and David their king; and will be amazed at'the Lord and at his goodness in the las days.

IV. III. (p) Hear a word of the Lord, O children of Israel' the Lord hath a controversy with the inhabitants of this land; because there is no truth, nor mercy, nor knowledge of God

2 in the land—Cursing and lying and murder and theft and adultery are burst out on the land, and blood mingleth with

3 blood; therefore the land shall mourn and be Avasted with all its inhabitants, with the wild beasts of the fields and with the reptiles of the earth, and with the birds of the air. Even the fishes of the sea shall fail.

4 (J) In order that none may be judged, that none may reprove, this people of mine shall be like a contradicted priest, and

5 shall be weak for years; and with thee the prophet shall be withou- strength. I have compared thy mother to the night: my people

6 is like one that hath not knowledge: because thou hast rejected knowledge, therefore I will reject thee from being my priest- as thou hast forgotten the law of thy God; I also will forgei

7 thy children. In proportion to their increase they sinned against

8 me; I will turn their glory into shame. Shall they eat the sin offerings of my people and by their iniquities support their

9 lives? It shall indeed be that as is the people so shall be the priest; I will punish them for their ways and retribute to him

10 his devices. Though they eat they shall not be filled, they

11 have committed fornications, and they cannot prosper. Because they forsook the Lord, to attend to fornication and wine, there-

12 fore the heart of my people embraced drunkenness. They consulted by symbols and gave them answers by their staves. By a spirit of fornication they were led astray; and they went a

15 whoring from their God. They sacrificed on die tops of the mountains, and on the hills they burned incense, under an oak and a beech and a shady tree, because shade is good. For thi cause your daughters will commit whoredom and your wive

14 adultery; and I will not punish your daughters, when the commit whoredom, nor your daughters in law when they com mil adultery. Because they convcrsedwith harlots and sacrifictc

(J) Jehovah. (p) The prophet speaks.

with prostitutes, therefore my people, who were without un-

5 derstanding, were entangled with fornication. As for thee, Israel, continue not in ignorance; and thou Juda go not to Gal- gala. Either go not up to the house of On, or swear not by the

6 living Lord. Because Israel ran about madly like a heifer stung by a gad fly, the Lord will now feed them like a lamb in

7 a roomy place. Ephraim associating with idols, laid stumbling

18 blocks for himself. They addicted themselves to the Chanan- itcs; they went on in a continued course of whoredom; they

19 loved dishonour because of its revelry; thou art a whirl of wind in its wings; but they shall be put to shame because of their altars.

V. IV. (p) Hear these things ye priests; and attend ye house of Israel, and ye household of the king give ear; for against you is this indictment, because you are become a snare in the watch tower; and like a net spread upon Itaburion, which they who hunt wild beasts have fixed up.

2 (J) As for me, I was your instructer. I acknowledged

3 Ephraim, when Israel did notwithdraw from me. Now because

4 Ephraim went a whoring, Israel is polluted. They did not apply their thoughts to return to their God. Because there is a spirit of whoredom in them, and they have not acknowledged the Lord,

5 therefore the haughtiness of Israel shall be humbled at his presence, and Israel and Ephraim shall be weakened for their iniquities. When Juda also shall be weakened with them,

6 they will go with sheep and young bulls to seek the Lord, but they shall not find him, because he hath withdrawn from them.

7 Because they have forsaken the Lord, because strange children have been born to them: the canker worm shall now devour them and their portions.

8 (p) Sound a trumpet on the mounts; raise a shout on the high places; proclaim in the house of On, Benjamin is con-

9 founded. Ephraim is become a desolation in the dayofrebtike.

(J) Among the tribes of Israel I have given faithful warnings.

10 The chiefs of Juda are become like the removers of bounda-.

11 ries, upon them I will pour out my fury like water. Ephraim tyrannised over his adversary, he trampled down judgment;

12 because he set the example of going after vanities, therefore I will be like a terror to Ephraim, and like a goad to the house


.13 of Juda. When Ephraim saw his disorder and Juda felt his pain, though Ephraim went to the Assyrians, and sent ambassadors to king larim; yet he could not heal you, nor could your 14 pain be assuaged; for I am like a panther to Ephraim, and like a lion to the house of Juda. When I tear, I will go and take

. 15 and there shall be no deliverer. I will sally forth and return tomy place until they are made desolate, then they will seek my face.

VI. In their affliction they will seek me early, saying, "Come, let us return to the Lord our God, for it is he who hath torn and he can heal us. He can smite, and into our wounds he can

2 pour balm; in two days he can restore us to health; on the

3 third day we shall be raised up and live before him. Let us acknowledge—let us continue our pursuit to know the Lord; sure as the morning we shall find him. He will come like rain for us; like the former and latter rain for the earth."

4 What shall I do for tliee, Ephraim? What shall I do for thee, Juda? As for your goodness, it was like a morning cloud—

5 like the transient dew of the morning: for this cause I mowed down your prophets, I slew them with the word of my mouth,

6 and my judgment shall go forth as light; for I desire mercy rather than sacrifice, and an acknowledgment of God rather

7 than whole burnt offerings. As for them, they are like man transgressing a covenant. There the city Galaad hath contemn-

8 ed me; it is a framer of vanities, a troubler of water, and thy

9 strength was that of a mighty robber. The priests concealed

10 the way; they acted the murder at Sikima. Because they committed iniquity in the house of Israel, I saw there the horrible fornication of Ephraim. Israel is polluted. Now Juda begin an inga-

11 thering for thyself. When I bring back the captivity of my peo-

VII. pie. When I have healed Israel, then shall be disclosed the iniquity of Ephraim and the wickedness of Samaria. Because they have framed lies, therefore a thief shall come in to him, a sculking robber shall be in his way: that they may chime toge-

. 2 ther like them who sing in iniison. I remembered all their wickedness, now their own devices have encompassed them.

3 They were all open to my view. They made kings glad by

4 their wickedness and chiefs by their lies. They all burn with adultery, like an oven for baking cakes, which, after putting in

the fire, after mixing the dough, is kept burning, till the dough is leavened.

5 With regard to the days of your kings, the chiefs had begun to be inflamed with wine. He had stretched forth his hand

6 with turbulent men. Because their hearts were heated like an oven, when they had revelled the whole night, Ephraim fell fast asleep. The morning came, he was heated again like a

7 flaming fire. They were all hot as an oven and devoured their judges; all their kings fell; there was none among them who

8 appealed to me. Ephraim was mingled among his tribes; Ephraim was a cake under ashes, which had not been turned.

9 Strangers devoured his strength and he did not know it; grey hairs grew upon him and he did not perceive it.

10 (p) Though it was evident that the haughtiness of Israel would be humbled, yet they did not turn to the Lord their God, nor seek him diligently for all this.

11 (J) Ephraim indeed was like * silly dove which had no understanding; he called upon Egypt: and they went to the

12 Assyrians. Let them go where they will, I will spread my net for them, and bring them down like the birds of the air, and

13 instruct them with the report of one another's affliction. Alas! for them, because they have departed from me. They are faint hearted, because they have transgressed against me. Though I

14 redeemed them, yet they spoke lies against me. Their hearts do not cry to me; but only make moans on their beds—for

15 torn and wine they were deeply affected. By me they were instructed—I indeed strengthened their arms; but they devis-

16 ed evils against me. They were turned back to no purpose. They were like a bended bow. Let their chiefs fall by the sword for the folly of their tongue; let the derision they en-

VIII. dured in the land of Egypt come into their bosoms like dirt, like an eagle darting upon the house of the Lord. Because they have transgressed my covenant, and have sinned against

2 my law, will they cry to me, " O God, we have known thee?"

3 Because Israel turned away good things they met with an ene- 1 my. They made kings for themselves but not by me—they

set up a government and did not consult me; of their silver

and gold they made idols for themselves that they might be

5 utterly cut off. Away with thy calf, O Samaria! my wrath is

6 kindled against them. How long shall things which cannot be made clean be in Israel-? A carpenter made it; it is no God.

7 Because thy calf, O Samaria, was an imposture—because they sowed blasted seed, therefore the catastrophe was correspondent; there is not a handful capable of yielding meal. And had

8 it succeeded, strangers would have devoured it. Israel is swallowed up—he is now among the nations like an useless vessel,

9 because he went up to the Assyrians. While Ephraim continued at home he sprouted again. They loved gifts, therefore

10 they shall be delivered up to the nations. I will now take charge of them, and they shall cease a little while from anoint-

11 ing a king and chiefs. Because Ephraim multiplied altars for

12 sins—altars were to him objects of love; I will prescribe for him a multitude. Though his rites were devised for other purposes, the altars were objects of love. For what purpose soe-

13 ver they offer sacrifices and eat flesh, the Lord will not accept them; he will now remember their iniquities and punish their sins. They turned back to Egypt, therefore among the As-

14 Syrians they shall eat unclean things. Israel indeed forgot his Maker and built fanes, and Juda multiplied fenced cities; but into these cities of his I will send a fire, and it shall devour those buildings of theirs.

IX. Rejoice not, Israel; nor be elated like the tribes, because thou hast gone a whoring from thy God. Thou didst love

2 gifts on every corn floor; floor and press have disowned them,

3 and the wine hath disappointed them. They did not dwell in the land of the Lord: Ephraim became an inhabitant of Egypt; therefore among the Assyrians they shall eat unclean things.

4 They did not pour out wine to the Lord nor offer him sweet incense; their sacrifices shall be to them like the bread of affliction; all that eat thereof shall be polluted. Seeing their fu-

5 neral loaves cannot come into the house of the Lord, what will you do on the day of a solemn assembly; and on a day of a

6 festival of the Lord? For this cause behold they are going from the misery of Egypt, and Memphis shall receive them and Machmas shall bury them. As for their silver, destruc-

7 tion shall inherit it. Thorns shall be in their habitations. The days of the visitation are come; at hand are the days of thy re- compence: and Israel shall be afflicted like the prophet who was struck with horror—the man who had been inspired. By the multitude of thine iniquities thy madness was increased.

(p) Ephraim was a watchman with God, a prophet was a cunning snare in all his ways, they had fixed a madness by a house of God; they were corrupt as in the days of Gibeah. He will remember their iniquity; he will punish their sins.

> (J) I found Israel as a bunch of grapes in a wilderness;

and I saw their fathers like an early watcher in a fig orchard. They went to Belphagor and abandoned themselves to shame,

L and became abominable, compared with the beloved. Ephraim is flown like a bird; their glories from parentage, births and

2 conceptions are gone. For though they bring up their children, they shall be bereaved of them from among men: for (and alas

J for them! my flesh is of them) Ephraim, as I have seen, have roused their children for a hunt—even Ephraim hath, that he may lead out his children to a fatal conflict. Give them—

4 (p) (O Lord what wilt thou give them?)

(J) —A womb incapable of bearing children and dry breasts.

5 All their wickedness was occasioned by Galgal; because I hated them there on account of the wickedness of their devices, I will drive them out of my house; I will no longer continue

6 to love them. All their chiefs are become rebellious. Ephraim is in distress. His roots are withered. He shall no more produce fruit. For though they bring forth, I will slay the belov-

7 ed. fruit of the womb. God will cast them off because they hearkened not to him; and they shall be wanderers among the nations.

C. Israel was a vine with beautiful branches: the fruit thereof was abundant. In proportion to the abundance of his fruit he multiplied altars: in proportion to the good things of his

2 land he erected pillars. They divided their hearts; they shall now be destroyed. He will demolish their altars. Their pillars

3 shall be in extreme distress. Because they will now say, "We have no king, because we feared not the Lord." But as for this

4 king, what can he do for us? Speaking words, false pretences, will he make a covenant? Will judgment spring up like a

5 weed in an uncultivated field? Let the inhabitants of Samaria sojourn with the calf of the house of On, because its people mourned for it. Now as they provoked it they should rejoice

6 at its glory—that it hath been removed from them. They indeed having bound it, carried it to the Assyrians, as a present to the king larim. As an homage gift of Ephraim he will receive it, and Israel shall be exposed to shame by his counsel.

7 Samaria hath cast away her king as a chip on the surface of wa-

8 ter. The altars of On, the stumbling blocks of Israel shall indeed be taken away; thorns and thistles shall grow on their altars, and they will say to the hills, cover us, and to the

9 mounts, Fall upon us. From the time of those mounts, Israel sinned: it was there they stood. Should not battle against these children of iniquity overtake them on this mount, to chastise

10 them? Peoples shall indeed be gathered against them, when

11 they are corrected for their two iniquities. Ephraim is a heifer taught to love victory; but I will come against her beautiful neck; I will bring Ephraim into subjection; I will cause Juda to keep silence; Jacob shall wrestle for himself.

12 (p) Sow for yourselves for righteousness; gather in the fruit of life. Light up for yourselves the light of knowledge. Seek the Lord until the fruits of righteousness come for you.

13 Why have you concealed impiety and gathered in the iniquities thereof? You have eaten false fruit.

(J) Because thou hast trusted in thy sins, and in the multi-

14 tude of thine army, therefore destruction shall be raised op among thy people; and all thy fortifications shall be swept away, as chief Salamin was out of the house of Jeroboam. In the days of battle a mother was dashed to pieces upon her chil-

15 dren. In this manner I will deal with you, O house of Israel, because of the perverseness of your iniquities.

(p) Early in the morning they have been rejected! the king of Israel is cast off! XI. (J) When Israel was young I loved him, and I called his

2 children out of Egypt. The more I called them, the more they ran from my presence. They sacrificed to the Baalims,

3 and burned incense to graven images; therefore I bound Ephraim's feet. I took him up in my arms. When they did not know that I heal by the destruction of men, I botfnd them

4 with the cords of my love. Now I will be to them as a man who slappeth his cheeks, and I will keep an eye upon him,

5 and exercise authority over him. Ephraim dwelt in Egypt.

though Assur was his king. Because he refused to return, he

6 was weakened in his cities by the sword. And it caused him to rest with his hands; and they shall cat the fruit of their devices.

7 (p) His people are indeed in imminent danger of being removed from their dwelling, will God be provoked against his honours so as never to exalt him ?

8 (J) What shall I do with thee, Ephraim ? Shall I shield thee, Israel ? What must I do with thee ? Shall I make thee as Adama and as Seboim ? My heart relenteth for him. My

9 compassion is moved. I will not act according to the fierceness of mine indignation, I will not give up Ephraim to utter destruction. For I am God and am not man—The Holy One in the midst of thee.

10 (p) Am I then not to enter a city ? Am I to follow the Lord ? Will he roar like a lion ? And because of his roaring, will the children of waters be affrighted ?

11 (J) They shall be frighted like a bird out of Egypt, and like a dove out of the land of the Assyrians. And I will bring them back to their own homes, saith the Lord.

12 Ephraim encompassed me with a lie, and the house of Israel and Juda, with impieties. Now God had acknowledged them, and they were to be called the holy people of God.—

XII. But this Ephraim is an evil spirit, he pursued a blasting wind the whole day. He multiplied emptiness and vanity. Though he made a covenant with the Assyrians, yet oil went

2 continually to Egypt. With Juda also the Lord hath controversy. To vindicate Jacob, he will retribute to him, accord-

3 ing to his ways, and according to his devices. In the womb Jacob kicked his brother, but in his troubles he wrestled

4 with God. He indeed wrestled with an angel and prevailed. Have they wept or have they supplicated me? Have they found me in the house of On ? Or have they been spoken to there ?

5 The Lord God Almighty was to be his memorial: To thy

6 God therefore thou art to return. Keep mercy and j udgment and draw near to thy God continually.

7 As for Chanaan, in his hand is a deceitful balance. He lov-

8 ed to tyrannise. Ephraim indeed said, "But I am rich, I have found a rest for myself." Because of the iniquities which he

hath committed, none of his labours shall turn to account. 9 the Lord am thy God. I brought thee up out of the land a Egypt, I will yet cause thee to dwell in tents, as in the da

10 of a festival. Shall I speak to prophets ? Though I have mul tiplied visions, and by the ministry of prophets made con-

11 parisons, was it only because of Galaad ? There were liar indeed at Galaad—chiefs sacrificing; but their altars were lit heaps in an uncultivated field.

12 (p) Though Jacob fled to the plain of Syria, and Israc, made himself a slave for a wife, and for a wife kept watch, y« by a prophet the Lord brought Israel out of the land of Egvp; and by a prophet he was preserved.

13 (J) Ephraim hath kindled indignation and provoked te wrath ; his blood therefore shall be poured out on him, and

XIII. the Lord will retribute to him his reproach. According to Ephraim's own account he received rules of rectitude by Israel, but he attributed them to Baal and incurred death

2 And now they have proceeded on to greater acts of sin ; and of their silver have made themselves a molten image, accord ing to the image of idols. The handiworks of craftsmen being consecrated for them, They say, Sacrifice men, for young

3 bulls have failed. For this cause they shall be like a morning cloud, and like a transient dew of the morning—like chaff blown from a winnowing floor and like a vapour from tears.

4 As for me, I the Lord thy God am he who established the heaven, and created the earth, whose hands have created all the host of heaven ; but I did not display these to thee that thou shouldst go after them : as I have brought thee up out of the land of Egypt ; therefore thou shall acknowledge no God besides me. Indeed besides me there is no

5 Saviour. It was I who fed thee in the desert—in an unin-

6 habited land. When in their pastures they were fed to the full; then were their hearts lifted up. For this cause the' for-

7 got me. Therefore I will be to them as a tiger, even as a tigress

8 in the way to the Assyrians, I will meet them as a bear bereaved of her cubs, and rend the covering of their heart; and the young lions of the forest shall there devour them ; and the

9 beasts of the field shall tear them to pieces. In thy destruction, 10 O Israel, who can give succour ? Where is this king of thine;

"Let him save thee in all thy cities. Let him judge thee, of

11 whom thou saidst, "Give me a king and a chief." I gave thee a king in mine indignation, and in my wrath restrained the

12 whirlwind of Ephraim's iniquity. As his sin is carefully laid

13 up in store, pangs as of a woman in travail shall come upon him.—

(p) With regard to that son of thine who is prudent, why may not he survive in the destruction of children.

14 (J) Him I will deliver from the power of the grave, and from death I will redeem them. '

(p) O death, where is thy punishment? Where thy sting, O grave? Is comfort hid from mine eyes? Since he will make

15 a distinction among brethren; let the Lord bring upon him a blasting wind from the desert, and let it dry up his veins and lay waste his fountains; let it parch up his land and all his precious stores.

16 (J) Samaria shall be utterly destroyed : because she rebelled against her God, they shall fall by the sword; and their infants shall be dashed to pieces, and their women with child shall be ripped up.

XIV. (p) O Israel, return to the Lord thy God. Seeing they

2 have been weakened for thine iniquities, take words with you and return to the Lord your God, and, that you may not rje- ceive the punishment of iniquity but may receive good things,

3 say to him, " We will render to thee the fruit of our lips. As- sur cannot save us. We will no more mount horses; we will no more say to the works of our hand, " You are our gods." He who is in thee will compassionate the fatherless.

4 (J) I will heal their habitations. I will undoubtedly love them. Because he hath turned away my wrath from him, I

5 will be to Israel like dew. He shall bloom like a lily, and shoot

6 out his roots like Lebanon. His branches shall spread; and he shall be like a fruitful olive tree, and like that of Lebanon

7 shall be his fragrance. They shall return and dwell under his shade; they shall live and be plentifully fed with corn. And he shall flourish like a vine and the memorial of him shall be

8 like the wine of Lebanon. As for Ephraim, what hath he any more to do with idols? I humbled him and I will strengthen

vol. Hi. 3 B

him. I am like a fruitful juniper; from me thou shalt find fruit.

9 (p) Who is wise that he may understand these things, prudent, that he may know them ? Because the ways of the Lord are straight; therefore the righteous will walk in them : But in them the wicked shall be without strength.