PAUL, a servant of Jesus Christ, a called apostle, set apart

2 for the gospel of God, which he promised heretofore by his

3 prophets in the holy scriptures concerning his son, (him who

4 Was of a seed of David with respect to flesh—him who was dc- terminately marked out as son of God by a power, according to a spirit of holiness, of rising up from the dead,) [namely]]

5 Jesus Christ, our Lord, by whom we have received favour and an apostolifcfal mission, that for his name there may be an obedience of faith among all the nations, among which you in-

6 deed are called ones of Jesus Christ—to all who aVe at

7 Rome, beloved of God, called and consecrated; favour be to you, and peace from God our father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

8 In the first place, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your belief is celebrated throughout the whole

9 world. For God, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his son, is my witness how incessantly I make mention of

10 you, intreating always in my prayers that by the will of God I may at length have some how a favourable opportunity to

11 come to you. For I long to see you that I may impart to you

12 some spiritual gift for your establishment, that is, to partake of consolation among you by the faith which is mutually in us, both yours and my own.

13 Now, brethren, I would not have you ignorant that I have hitherto been hindered, though I have often heretofore purposed to come to you, that I might have some fruit among you even

14 as among the other nations. I am a debtor both to Greeks and barbarians, to both the learned and the unlearned, so that as far 15 as it rests with me, I am ready to publish the glad tidings to you

16 also who are at Rome. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of the Christ; for it is the power of God for salvation to every one who believeth, to the Jew in the first place, and also to

17 the Greek. For by it there is revealed a justification of God's

18 appointment because of belief, that we may believe. As it is written, "But the just shall live because of belief:*"—for the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of the men, who by unrighteousness repress truth.

19 Because that which is to be known of God is manifest

20 among them, for God hath manifested it to them; for his invisible attributes, both his eternal power and divine majesty, being thought upon, are from the creation of the world clearly discoverable by the things made, so that they are without ex-

21 cuse—because when they knew God, they did .not glorify him as God, nor give him thanks, but became vain by their ill- grounded reasonings, and their foolish heart was darkened—

22 pretending to be wise, they became fools, and changed the

23 glory of the incorruptible God for an image representing cor-

24 ruptible man, and birds, and four footed beasts, and reptiles; therefore God delivered them up, by the desires of their own hearts, to impurity, that by themselves their own bodies might be dishonoured.

25 They changed the truth of God for a falsity, and worshipped and served the creature, and not the creator who is blessed forever, Amen: therefore God gave them up to infamous

26 passions; for even their women perverted the instinct of

27 nature; and in like manner the males also leaving the sex, were inflamed with desires towards each other, which they most shamefully indulged, men with men, and received in themselves the retribution which was justly due to their error.

28 And as they did not search out God to have constantly a due sense of him, God gave them up to an undiscerning mind to

29 do things unseemly, filled as they were with all manner of injustice, lewdness, maliciousness, covetousness, mischief, be-

* Hab. 2. 4.

30 ing full of envy, murder, contention, fraud, evil hab'rts; being whisperers, backbiters, haters of God, insulters of men, insolent, boastful, inventors of evils, disobedient to parents,

31 without understanding, covenant breakers, void of natural affection, implacable, \mmerciful.

32 Some having recognised God's law, That they who do suck tilings deseive death, not only do the same things themselves, but have even a complacency in them who commit them ;

II. therefore thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever thou art, who judgest another : for in the act of judging another thou condemnest thyself. For thou the judger dost the same

2 things. Now we know .that the judgment of God is according

3 to truth against them who commit such things. And dost thou imagine, O man, who judgest them who commit such things and dost the same thyself, that thou shall escape the judgment

4 of God ? Or dost thou contemn the riches of his gentleness and forbearance and long suffering, not considering that the gentle -

5 iiess of God is leading thee to a reformation ? Indeed according to this obduracy, and impenitent heart of thine thou art treasuring up for thyself wrath against a day of the wrath and

6 of the revelation of the righteous judgment of God, who will

7 render to every one according to his works—to them who by perseverance in well-doing, seek for glory and honour, and

8 incorruption [he will grant] everlasting life; but for them who are contentious and disobedient to the truth and in sub-

9 jection to unrighteousness, there will be indignation and wrath, tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man who doth

10 evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Greek ; but glory and

11 honour and peace, for every one who doth good—for the Jew first, and also for the Greek. For with God there is no respect

12 of persons. For as many as have sinned without law, shall without law perish, and as many as have sinned, being under

16 law shall be judged by law, on the day when, according to my gospel, God will judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ.

13 For it is not the hearers of the law who are righteous in the

14 sight of God, but the doers of the law will be justified ; for when the Gentiles who have not law do by nature the duties required by the law, these not having law are a law to them-

15 selves. By the joint testimony of their conscience, and by their debates one with another, whether accusing or defending, they shew the matter of the law written in their hearts.

17 Behold thou art called a Jew, and thou restest on the law

18 and gloriest in God, and knowest his will, and triest things

19 which differ, being instructed out of the law, and hast a confidence that thou thyself art a guide of the blind, a light to them

20 who are in darkness, an instructor of the ignorant, a teacher of babes, having the form of the knowledge and of the truth

21 in the law. Thou therefore who teachest another, dost thou not teach thyself? Thou who proclaimest not to steal, dost

22 thou steal ? Thou who sayest, Commit not adultery', dost thou commit adultery ? Thou who abominatest idols, dost thou

33 violate things sacred ? Thou who gloriest in a law, dost thou

24 by the breach of that law dishonour God ? For as it is written, "On your account the name of God is blasphemed among the

25 nations.*" For circumcision is indeed profitable if thou per- formest the law. But if thou art a transgressor of the law thy

26 circumcision is become uncircumcision. If then the uncdr- cumcision keep the moral precepts of the law, shall not such

27 a one's uncircumcision be accounted circumcision ? And may not the uncircumcision which in a state of nature per- formeth the law, judge thee who being under a written law

28 and circumcision art a transgressor of law ? For he is not a Jew, who is one outwardly ; nor is that circumcision, which is barely in the flesh : but he, who is a Jew inwardly, whose circumcision is that of the heart—spiritually not literally, whose praise is not from men, but from God. .

HI. (J) What then is the superior privilege of the Jew, or what the advantage of circumcision ?

2 (A) Much every way. First indeed that they were intrusted with the oracles of God.

3 (J) Well! what if some have been unfaithful ? Shall their unfaithfulness make void the faithfulness of God ?

4 (A) No, by no means. Yea, let God be true, though

* Es. 52. 5, (J) A Jew's objection. (A) The apostle's answer.

every man be a liar, as it is written, " So that thou must be jus-- t'tfied in thy acts and must overcome when thou art judged.*"

5 (J) If then our unrighteousness established) the righteousness of God, what shall we say, Is not God unjust who taketh vengeance? I speak as a man—

(i (A) No, by no means. In that case, how shall God judge the world? f

7 (J )—For if by my falsehood the truth of God hath abounded to his glory, why am I yet condemned as a sinner?

8 (A) And will you, (as we are calumniated and as some affirm that we) say, that we should do evil that good may come, you whose condemnation is just?

9 (J) What preference then have we?

(A) None at all. For we have before charged both Jews

10 and Greeks with being all under sin; as it is written,

" There is none righteous, no, not one.

11 There is none who hath understanding. There is none who seeketh God.

12 They are all gone aside;

They are all together become vile;

There is none who doth good—no, not one.

13 Their throat is an open sepulchre.
With their tongues they practised deceit.
The poison of asps is under the lips of them,

14 Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness.

15 Their feet are swift to shed blood.

16 Destruction and misery are in their ways.

17 And the way of peace they did not know.

18 There is no fear of God before their eyes."J

19 Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law, that every mouth may be stopped, and the whole world stand convicted before God.

20 Because no flesh can be justified before him by works o(

21 law; for by law there is a knowledge qf sin, now therefore, independency of law, there is made manifest a justification of

* Ps. 51. 6. f The apostle, as I conceive, repels the suggestion of God's being unjust, without waiting for the conclusion oj tin; objection which is contained in verse 7. t Ps. 1 <1-. VOL. IV. M m

22 God's appointment, attested by the law and the prophets— even a justification, of God's appointment, by faith in Jesus Christ, for all and upon all who believe; for there is no dis-

23 tinction; for all have sinned and come shbrt of the glory of 2,4 God. They are justified freely by his grace through the re-

25 demption which is by Christ Jesus, whom God heretofore exhibited as a mercy seat by faith in his blood, that, on account

26 of the remission of past sins, during the forbearance of God, it might be an indication of this justification of his, painting to a display of this justification of his at this time, in order to shew this, That he u just and the justijier of him who is a be-

27 liever in Jesus. Where then is this boasting? It is excluded. By what law? By that of works? No; but by a law of belief.

28 We conclude therefore that man is justified by belief inde-

29 pendent of works of law. Is God the God of Jews only ? Is he not also [the God] of the Gentiles? Yes, of Gentiles also:

30 since it is one and the same God who will justify circumcision

31 because of belief and uncircumcision by the same belief. Do we then by this belief make law void? No, by no means: on the contrary we establish law.

IV. What then shall we say that our father Abraham obtained

2 in regard to the flesh? for if Abraham was justified because of works he hath matter of boasting. But he hath not before God.

3 For what saith the scripture, "And Abraham believed God and it

4 ivasreckoned to him for righteousness."* Now to him who work-

5 eth the reward is not reckoned a favour, but a debt. But to him who doth not work, but belicveth in him who acquitteth the ungodly, his belief is placed to account for righteousness.

6 As David also saith in respect to the happiness of the man to whose account God placeth righteousness without works,

7 "Happy they whose iniquities are forgiven; And whose sins are covered:

8 Happy the man to whose account the Lord will not charge sin."f ,

9 Now with respect to this happiness, doth it come upon die circumcision only, or upon the uncircumcision also? For we say that the believing was reckoned to Abraham for righte-

*Gen. 15. 6. f Ps. 32. 1,

10 ousness. How then was it reckoned to him? When he was in

11 circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not when in circumci- sioli; but when in uncircumcision; and he received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness of that belief, which he had in uncircumcision, that he might be a father of all who believe when in a state of uncircumcision, in order that

12 this righteousness may be reckoned to them also—and a father of circumcision to them who are not only circumcised, but who also walk in the footsteps of that belief of our father Abraham,

13 which he had during uncircumcision. For the promise that he should be heir of the world was not made to Abraham or his

14 seed, during law, but during the righteousness of belief. For if they who are under law are heirs, the believing is made void,

15 and the promise rendered of no effect. For the law operateth to produce wrath; for where there is no law, there is no trans-

16 gression. Therefore the promise is because of faith, that it may be matter of favour to this extent, that it may be firm to the whole seed—not only to that under the law, but to that of

17 the faith of Abraham, who (as it is written, " I have made thee a father of many nations*" is the father of us all in the sight of him in whom he believed—namely God who reanimateth the dead, and calleth up things not yet in existence as if actually

18 existing. Against hope he believed with a hope that he should become father of many nations according to what was said,

19 "So shall thy seedbe-\"—and far from being weak in faith, he did not consider his own body now become dead, he being then in his hundredth year; nor the deadness of Sarah's womb.

20 He disputed not against the promise of God by unbelief; but

21 was strong in faith, giving glory to God, and being fully per-

22 suaded that he was able to perform what he had promised. Therefore it was reckoned to him for righteousness. Now it

23 -was not written merely for his sake, that it was reckoned to

24 him, but for our sakes also to whom it will now be reckoned, namely to such as believe in him who hath raised from the

* Gen, 17. 6. f Gen. 15. 5.

25 (lead Jesus our Lord, who was delivered up for our offences^

and raised again for our justification. V. Therefore being justified because of belief, we have peace

2 with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have, by this belief, obtained access to this favour in which we

3 stand and boast in a hope of the glory of God. And not only so, but we boast also in our tribulations, as we know that tri-

4 bulation operateth to produce patience; and patience, a proof;

5 and proof, a hope; and this hope will not shame us, because the love of God is diffused through our hearts by a-holy spirit,

6 which Is gi,ven us. For while we were yet without strength,

7 Christ In due time died for the ungodly: for scarcely will any one die for a just man; though perhaps for the good some one

8 may even flare to die: but God confirmeth his love for us, bc-

9 cause while fre were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Much more therefore shall we, being now acquitted by his blood, be saved by him from the wrath; For if we, when enemies,

10 were reconciled to God by the death of his son, much more shall we, being reconciled, be saved by his life. And not only

11 so. but we also boast in God. through out Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now obtained this reconciliation, on thisac-

12 count—as sin entered into this world by one man, and death

13 by sin, and so death for which all sinned passed through unto all men: for there was sin in the world until the law: now sin is not placed to account where there is no law; hut death reigned

14 from Adam to Moses, even over them who had not sinned after the likeness of the transgression of Adam, who is a type

15 of him who was to dome: but the free gift is not as the transgression; for if for the transgression of the one, the many died; much more hath the favour of God, and the free gift by the fa-

16 vourb'fthe other man, Jesus Christ, superabounded to the man': nor is this free gift as in the case wheh one sinned— for the sentence was a condemnation for one offence, but the

17 free gift is an acquittal from many transgressions. For if for the offence of the one, death reigned by that one; much more shall they who receive the superabundance of this favour and of the free gift of this acquittal, reign in life by the other, name-

18 ly Jesus Christ. Therefore as by one transgression there was a sentence of condemnation for all men; so by one acquittal

? there is an adjudication of life for all men. For as by the disobedience of the one man, the many were ranked as sinners, so also by the obedience oT the other man, the many will be

) ranked as righteous. Now the law came in a little way, so that transgression abounded, but where sin abounded, favour su-

L perabounded, that as sin had reigned by death, so favour might reign by means' of a justification for everlasting life, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

rl. What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin that favour may abound?

2 No, by no means. With respect to us who have died to sin,

3 how can we any more live therein? Do you not know that as many of us as have been baptized to Christ Jesus, have been

4 baptized to his death? We have therefore been buried with him by that baptism to his death, that as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we also may walk

5 iri newness of life. For if we are grafts, we are made so by the

6 similitude of his death, but by that of his resurrection we shall actually be so. This we know, that our old man was crucified with him that the body of sin may be stopped from operating, in order that we may no longer be slaves to sin. For he who

7 is dead, is delivered from sin. Now if we have died with Christ,

8 we believe that we shall live with him, as we know that Christ,

9 being raised from the dead, dieth no more. Death hath no .0 more a mastery over him. For inasmuch as he died for sin, he il died once for all; but as he liveth, he liveth for God. So likewise reckon ye yourselves to be dead to sin, but alive for God

L2 in Christ Jesus our Lord. Therefore let not sin reign in your L3 mortal body, so as by the appetites thereof to serve sin; nor

deliver up your members to sin as instruments of tinrighteous-

ness; but deliver yourselves up to God, as brought to life from L4 the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness

for God. For sin is not to have dominion over you, as you are

not under the law, but under favour.

15 What then: shall we sin because we are not under law, but under favour?

16 No, by no means. Do you not know that to whatsoever you deliver yourselves up as servants at command, you are the slaves of that which you obey, whether it be of sin for death;

17 or of obedience for righteousness. But thanks be to God, that though you were slaves of sin, yet from the heart you have conformed to the mould of doctrine in which you were cast,

18 and being freed from sin, have become servants of righteous-

19 ness. (I speak in the language of human affairs because of the weakness of your flesh,) for as you yielded up your members to iniquity, as slavish instruments of uncleanness and all man- ner of iniquity, so now yield up your members as servants to

20 righteousness for sanctification. For when you were servants of sin—when you were at a loose from righteousness, what

21 fruit therefore had you then from those things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of them is death. But being no\v

22 set free from sin and become servants of God, you have your fruit to holiness, and in the end, everlasting life. For die wa-

23 ges of sin is death; but the free gift of God is everlasting life by Christ Jesus our Lord.

VII. Or do not you, brethren, know (for I now speak to them who know law) that the law hath dominion over man as

2 long as it liveth? For the married woman is by law bound to her husband while he is alive. But if the husband die, a stop is put to the operation of the law of the husband. Therefore if

3 she marry another man while her husband is alive, she will get the name of an adulteress; but if her husband die, she is frte from the law so as not to be an adulteress by becoming ano-

4 ther man's wife. So you also, my brethren, are become dead to the law by means of the body of the Christ, that you may be for another, who is raised from the dead, that we may bring

5 forth fruit to God. For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions, which subsisted under the law, exerted their energy in our memt>ers to bring forth fruit to death: but we are now

6 set free from the law by the death of that by which we were holden, so that we may serve with a new spirit, and not by the old letter.

7 (J) What shall we say then? Is the law sin?

(A) No, by no means. Indeed I should not have known sin, had it not been for the law. For I should not have known

8 covetousness, had not the law said, " Tliou shall not covet." But sin having got an advantage by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of desire. For without law sia is 9 dead. Now as for me, I for a while was alive without law, but when

10 the commandment came, sin revived and I died. So I found the commandment which was for life, to be for death. For sin

11 having got an advantage by the commandment, seduced me,

12 and by it slew me. So that the law is indeed holy, and the commandment is holy, just and good.

13 (J) Hath that then which is good been death to me? (A) No, by no means. But sin, so that it appeared to be

sin, continued working death for me by that which is good, so that sin appeared to be sin in the highest degree by the com-

14 mandment. For we know that the law is spiritual, but as for

15 me, I being carnal, am sold to sin. For what I am doing I do not allow; for that which I approve, I do not perform; but what

16 I hate, that I do. Now if I do that which I do not approve, I assent to the law that it is good: and it is now not I myself,

17 who do this, but sin which dwelleth in me. For I know that

18 in me, that is, in my flesh, good doth not dwell. For to will is present with me, but the performance of what is good, I do

19 not find. For the good which I approve, I do not perform; but

20 evil which I disapprove, this I do. Now if I do that which I myself disapprove; it is no more I myself who do it; but sin

21 which dwelleth in me. I find then this law for me, that when

22 I would do good, evil is close to me. For in the inner man I

23 am delighted with the law of God; but I perceive another law in my members warring against the law of my mind and making

24 me a captive to the law of sin which is in my members. Wretched man that I am! who will deliver me from this death-

25 ful body? I thank God that through Jesus Christ our Lord, (do I then myself with the mind serve the law of God, but with

VIII. the flesh the law of sin?) there is then no condemnation now to them who are in Christ Jesus and who walk not after

2 the flesh, but after the spirit. For the law of the spirit of the life in Christ Jesus hath freed me from the law of sin and death; for

3 as it was out of the power of the law to do this, inasmuch as it was wtak through the flesh, God having sent his own son in a likeness of sinful flesh, and to be a sin offering, hath condemned

4 this sin in the flesh, that the morality of the law might be con-

5 firmed by us who walk not after flesh, but after spirit: for they who are followers of flesh have their minds bent on the things

of the flesh; but/the followers of spirit, on the things of the G spirit. For the bent of the flesh is death; but the bent of the

7 spirit is life and peace. Because the bent of the flesh is enmi-

8 ty to God, (for it is not in subjection to the law of God, nor indeed can be,) they therefore who are in a carnal state* can not

9 please God. But you are not in a carnal state, but inaspiritu-

10 al state,t if indeed the spirit of God dwelleth in you. But if any one hath not the spirit of Christ, he is none of his. But if Christ be in you, the body indeed is dead because of sin, but

11 the spirit is alive, because of a justification; and if the spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwelklh in you, he who hath raised up the Christ from the dead \vill quicken even those dead bodies of yours by his spirit which dwelleth in you.

12 Therefore we, brethren, are not debtors to the flesh, that we

13 should live according to the flesh; for if you live according to the flesh, you are dying; but if you by the spirit mortify the deeds of the body, you shall live. For as many as are led by

14 the spirit of God, are sons of God. For you have not received

15 a spirit of bondage again to fear; but you have received a spi-

16 rit of adoption, by which we cry, Abba, Father. This very spi-

17 rit beareth joint witness with our spirit that we are children of

18 God; and if children, jthen heirs; heirs indeed of God, and joint heirs with Christ if we suffer with him so that with him we may also be glorified. For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be set against that glory which

19 is about to be revealed for us. For the earnest expectation of mankindj is waiting for the manifestation of the children of

20 God. For to vanity this creation was subjected, not as a volun-

21 tary agent, but by him who subjected it to a hope that this very creation shall be freed from the slavery of this corruption, that it may enjoy the glorious liberty of the children of God.

22 For we know that this whole creation are groaning together,

23 and even till now are all in pain as a woman in travail. Nay, even they who have the first fruits of the spirit, even we our-

* Literally, in Jie&h. \ Literally, in spirit. $ Literally, the creation. By comparing Mark 16. 15. where it occurs, with Matt. 28. 19. I take it to mean n:anl<iniim general, Jews and Gentiles.

selves are groaning within ourselves, waiting for an adoption

24 —the redemption of this body of ours. For to this hope we have escaped. Now hope which is attained,* is not hope; for

25 why should one hope for that which he enjoyeth. But if we hope for what we do not enjoy, we wait for it with patience, and in

26 such a manner as the spirit joineth in helping our infirmities: for we do not know what we should pray for as we ought, but the spirit itself intercedeth for us with groans which can-

27 not be expressed in words. And he who searcheth the hearts knoweth the bent of the spirit, that it pleadeth for saints accord-

28 ing to the will of God. And we know that all things are work, ing together for good to them who love God—to them who according to a previous purpose are now actually called.

29 For those whom he foreknew, even these he marked out beforehand to be of a form the same as that of the image of his

30 son,f that he might be a first born among many brethren. And those whom he marked out beforehand he actually called, and those whom he called, even these he acquitted, and those whom he acquitted even these he glorified.

31 What then shall we say to these things ? If God is for us,

32 who can be against us ? He who spared not his own son but delivered him up for us all, how will he not also with him

33 freely grant us all things ? Who shall lodge an accusation.

34 against them whom God hath chosen ? God who acquitteth ? who is he who shall condemn ? Christ who died ? Rather indeed who is raised up, who is actually at the right hand of

35 God, and who maketh intercession for us ? Who shall separate us from the love of the Christ ? Shall tribulation or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword ? (As it is written,

36 " For thy sake we are killed all the day long, And accounted as sheep for slaughter4"

37 We indeed in all these things are more than conquerors

* Literally seen, a figure used in scripture for having or enjoying, See John 3. 36.

f I apprehend that the apostle here alludes to the first creation of man, and particularly to Gen. 1. 26. ^ Ps. 44. 22.

Vol. iv. N n

38 by means of him who hath loved us. For I am persuaded that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other created being shall be able to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus oui Lord.

IX. I speak the truth in Christ, I lie not, my conscience, with

2 a holy spirit, bearing joint witness for me that I have greit

3 grief and incessant sorrow in my heart (for I even I myself wished the followers of Christ to be devoted to destruction,*) for my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh, who are

4 Israelites, to whom belonged the adoption and the glory, and die covenants, and the civil government, and the religious

5 service, and the promises ; whose ancestors were the patriarchs, and from whom, with regard to flesh, the Christ is [de-

6 scended] who is over all, God blessed forever. Amen. It is not however to be supposed that the word of God hath failed.

7 For with regard to all the descendants of Israel, they are not Israel; nor are they all children, because they are of the race

8 of Abraham; but in Isaak a seed shall be called for thee. That is to say, It is not the children of the flesh who are the children of God ; but the children of the promise are reckoned

9 for seed. For this is the word of the promise. "About this time twelve month I will come and Sarah shall have a son.j"

10 And not only so but the same was the case with Rebecca, when she was with child of twins by one man, namely, our father Isaak.

11 For the children being not yet born, nor having done any thing good or evil that the purpose might rest on the choice of God, not in consideration of works, but of his call, it was said to her, " The elder shall serve the younger." As it is written "Jacob I have loved and Esau I have slighted.*"

* Literally, I even I myself wished thefollowers of Christ to be an anathema. The word anathema means a person or thing devoted to destruction: and we find in the Septuagint, Lev. 27. 28, the very phrase used here viz. amdi/tn «*» denoting that the person or thing may be from among men or beasts, or part of one's possessions. So the apostle says that he himself wished some from the Christ, that is, some of the followers of the Christ to be an anathema, that is, devoted to destruction, and therefore he persecuted them. fGen. 18. 10, &c.

(J) What then shall we say"? Is there injustice with God?

(A) No by no means. For to Moses he saith, " I will have mercy on whomsoever I please to have mercy'? and I will have compassion on whomsoever I please to compassi- onate.f Therefore it is not of him who willeth, nor of him who runneth, but of God, who sheweth mercy. For the scripture saith to Pharaoh, " I have raised thee up for this purpose that'bythee I may display my power; and that my name may be celebrated throughout all the earth.J" : Well then, he sheweth mercy to whom he pleaseth, and liard- 1 eneth whom he pleaseth, wilt thou then say to me, Why doth i he yet find fault, for who hath resisted his will ? But who art thou, O man, who enterest into a dispute with God ? Shall the thing formed say to him who formed it, Why hast thou

1 made me thus ? Hath not the potter power over the clay to make, out of the same lump, one vessel for honour, and ano-

2 ther for dishonour ? What if God willing to manifest his wrath and make known his power, did with much long suffering, bear with the vessels of wrath fitted for destruction, to the end

3 that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy which he had previously prepared for glory—

t even us whom he hath called not only from among the Jews,

5 but also from among the Gentiles. As he actually saith by Hosea, " I will call them my people who are not my people ;

6 and I will call her beloved, who was not beloved. And it shall come to pass that in the place where it was said to them, You are not my people, they shall there be called children of the

7 living God.§" Esaias also crieth concerning Israel, "Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea,

8 this remnant shall be saved. ||" For he is closing an account and making a deduction with saving goodness. Because the Lord will make with the land a reckoning from which a deduction

* Mai. 1.2. fEx. 33. 1°. $ Ex. 9.16. $ Hosea, 1.10. , Es. 10. 22, &c.

29 is made, therefore as Esaias said. "Had not the Lord of hosts left us a seed, we must have been like Sodom and become like Gomorrah.*"

30 (J) What then are we to infer?

(A) That the Gentiles who did not pursue righteousness,

31 attained righteousness, but it was a righteousness because of belief; but Israel pursuing a law of righteousness did not come up to the law of righteousness.

(J) Why?

32 (A) Because they sought it not from belief; but as if at-

33 tainable by works of law. For they stumbled at the stumbling stone. As it is written, "Behold I lay in Sion a stone of stum* bling and a rock of offence." And "whosoever believeth in him shall not be shamed."f

X. Brethren, the earnest desire of my heart and my sup-

2 plication to God for Israel is, that they may be saved. For I

3 bear them witness that they have a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge. For bt ing ignorant of the righteousness of God's appointment, and seeking to establish a righteousness of their own, they did not submit themselves to

4 God's righteousness. For Christ is the end of the law for

5 righteousness to every one who believeth: For Moses de- scribeth the righteousness which is from the law, thus—"The man who doth these things shall live thereby;"! but the righteousness because of believing speaketh in this manner—Say

6 not in thy heart, Who will ascend up to heaven (that is to

7 bring Christ down); or who will go down to the abyss (that

8 is to bring up Christ from the dead) But what doth it say? The matter is near thee, in thy mouth and in thy heart$—

9 That is, the matter of this belief, which we proclaim, That if thou wilt acknowledge with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and

10 believe with thy heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For with the heart man believeth for righteousness, and with the mouth acknowledgment is

11 made for salvation. For the scripture saith, "Whosoever be-

12 lieveth in him shall not be shamed."|| For there is no distino

* Eaaiaa»l. 9. f Es- 8- 14* and 28.16. $ Lev. 18. 5.

§ Deut. 30. 11, &c. || Es. 28.16.

tion of Jew and Greek; for he is Lord of all, abounding in

13 riches for all who call upon him; "For whosoever will call on the name of the Lord shall be saved."*

14 (J) How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? And how shall they believe in him, of whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without a pro-

15 claimer? and how shall they proclaim, unless they be sent? As it is written, "How beautiful are the feet of them who proclaim the joyful message of peace—who proclaim the glad tidings of good things."f

16 (A) But all have not duly hearkened to the good news,

17 for Esaias saith, "Lord, who hath believed this report of ours." J The believing is indeed because of hearing, and what they heard is by the order of God. But I say, Have they not heard?

18 (J) What! Is their sound then gone forth to every land; and their doctrines to the limits of the world? $

19 (A) But I say, Hath not Israel known? First Moses saith, "I will provoke you by what is not a nation,

By a foolish nation I will vex you."||

20 But Esaias is more explicit, and saith,

"I was found by them who sought me not, I became manifest to them who inquired not for me." But concerning Israel he saith, "I have stretched out my hands all the day long " To a disobedient and gainsaying people."1f XI. (J) I say then, Hath God utterly rejected his people?

(A) No, by no means. For even I myself am an Israel-

2 ite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. God hath not utterly rejected his people whom he heretofore ac-

3 knowledged. Do you not know by Elias what the scripture saith? When he is pleading with God against Israel, saying, "Lord, they have slain thy prophets and demolished thine al-

4 tars; and I alone am left, and they seek my life." What doth the divine oracle say to him? "I have reserved for myself seven thousand men who have not bowed a knee to Baal."** In 5 like manner, therefore, at this present time there is a remnant

* Joel 2. 32. f Es- 52- 7, &c. \ Es. 53.1. § Ps. 19. 4. f Deut. 32. 21. fl Es. 65. 1, &c. ** 1 K* 19. 14, &c.

6 according to a choice of favour. Now if it be by favour, it is no more in consideration of works, since in this case the favour b no favour: but if it be in consideration of works it is no more of favour, otherwise the work is no work.

7 (J) What is the inference?

(A) That which Israel sought he did not obtain; but the

8 chosen obtained it and the rest were blinded. As it is written, "God hath given them a spirit of stupefaction, eyes not to see

9 and ears not to hear even to this day."* And David saith, "Let their table be for a snare and for a trap, and for a stumbling block, and for a retribution to them.

10 Let their eyes be darkened that they may not see, And bow down their neck continually."f

11 (J) I say then, Did they stumble that they might fall? (A) No, by no means. But on this lapse of theirs the

12 Gentiles have this salvation to provoke them to emulation. Now if this lapse of theirs is the riches of the world and the

13 diminution of them is the riches of the Gentiles, how much more will their fulness be! (For I tell you, Gentiles, inasmuch

14 as I am the apostle of the Gentiles, I honour my office, if I can any how excite to emulation them who are my flesh and

15 save some of them). For if the casting of them off is the reconcilement of the world, what must the taking of them back

16 be, but life from the dead? Now if that portion which is set

17 apart from an offering is holy, so will the mass be. And if the root is holy, so are the branches: And if some of the branches are broken off, and thou being a wild olive art ingrafted among them and become a partaker of the root and fatness of

18 the olive tree, boast not against the branches. But if thou boast [remember that] thou dost not support the root, but the root supporteth thee.

19 Thou wilt say then, The branches were broken off, that I

20 might be ingraffed. Well! They were broken off for their

21 disbelief, and thou standest for thy belief. Be not high mind-

22 ed; but fear; For if God spared not the natural branches,

* Es. ?9.10. and 6.10. f Ps- 69. 22, &c.

perhaps he may not spare thee. Behold then the kindness and the severity of God—severity against them indeed who have fallen, and kindness to thee if thou continue in that kindness,

23 otherwise thou also wilt be cut off. And with respect to them, if they continue not in their disbelief, they shall be ingraffed.

24 For God is able to ingraff them again. For if thou hast been cut from a natural wild olive tree, and contrary to nature graffed on a good olive tree; how much more shall they that are natural branches be graffed on their own olive tree. For,

25 that you, brethren, may not have too high an opinion of your- selves, I would not have you ignorant of this secret, That a partial blindness hath come upon Israel until the fulness of the

26 Gentiles shall have come in, and then at length all Israel shall be saved. As it is written

"For the sake of Sion the Deliverer will come
And turn away ungodliness from Jacob:

27 And this shall be my covenant with them
When I take away their sins. J

28 With respect to these glad tidings, they are enemies on your account; but with respect to the choice, they are be-

29 loved on account of the fathers. For the favours and choice

30 of God are not reversed. For as you for a while rebelled

31 against God, but have now obtained mercy at their rebellion;

32 so they also have now rebelled at the mercy shewn to you, that they also may be objects of mercy. For God hath shut

33 all up for disobedience that he may have mercy on all. O the depth of the riches, and of the wisdom, and of the knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways

34 not to be traced out! For who hath known the mind of the

35 Lord"? Or who hath been his counsellor? Or who hath first given to him, that in return he may receive a recompense?

36 Because of him, and by him, and for him are all things; to XII. him be the glory forever, Amen; therefore I exhort you,

brethren, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a

living, holy, acceptable sacrifice to God as your rational, re-

2 ligious service; and be not conformed to this world; but

* Bs. 59. 20.

transformed by the renewal of your mind, that you may know experimentally what the will of God is, which is good and

3 acceptable and perfect. For by virtue of the favour which is granted to me, I charge every one who is among you not to have an overweening opinion of himself, but to bend his thoughts to the attaining of a sober and modest demeanour, as

4 God hath distributed a portion of faith to every one. For as we have many members in one body, and all the members

5 have not the same office; so we being many are one body in

6 Christ, but individually members of one another, and employed in exercising free gifts, according to the favour con-

7 ferred on us, different as they are, if prophesy, in conformity to that belief; if a ministerial office, in that office; and if one is a

8 teacher, in teaching; and the exhorter in exhortation; let him who giveth [do it] with sincerity; him who superintendeth,

9 with assiduity; him who sheweth mercy, with cheerfulness. Let love be unfeigned: abhor what is evil; adhere closely to

10 what is good; in brotherly love be tenderly affectionate one

11 to another: in honour prefer one another; in business be not

12 slothful: Be fervent in spirit; constant in serving the Lord;

13 joyful in hope; patient in tribulation; stedfastly persevering

14 in prayer; administering to the wants of the saints; cultivat-

15 ing hospitality: Bless them who persecute you—bless and curse not. Set your hearts on this with respect to each other—to rejoice with them who rejoice, and to weep with

16 them who weep. Set not your minds on high things, but accommodate yourselves to things which are low. Be not wise

17 in your own conceits. Render to none evil for evil. Be pro-

18 vident in regard to things good in the sight of all men. If pos-

19 sible, that is, as far as in your power, be at peace with all men. Beloved, avenge not yourselves, but give place to the

20 wrath; for it is written, "Vengeance is mine; I will requite, saith the Lord." Therefore if thine enemy hunger feed him; if he be thirsty, give him drink; for by doing so thou wilt

21 use the means to melt him.f Be not overcome by evil; but

* Deut. 32. 35. f Prov. 25. 21. Literally, heap coals off re on his head, a proverbial phrase taken from the melting of metals in a crucible.

overcome evil with good. Let every soul be subject to the

XIII. ruling powers; for there is no power but from God. The

2 powers in being are arranged by God; so that he who setteth himself against the power resisteth the arrangement of God;

3 and they who resist shall receive for themselves condemnation. For the rulers are not a terror to good works but to evil. Dost thou then wish not to dread the power? Do that which is good

4 and thou shall have praise from it. For it is a minister of God for good to thee. But if thou dost evil, be in dread; for it wieldeth not the sword in vain. For it is a minister of God,

5 an avenger to execute wrath on him who doth evil. Therefore it is necessary to submit to government, not only on account of punishment, but also for conscience's sake. Indeed on this

6 account you pay taxes, because there are ministers of God

7 continually employed for this very purpose. Render therefore to all their dues—tribute to whom tribute; custom to whom custom; reverence to whom reverence; honour to whom ho-

8 nour is due. Owe no one any thing, save this, to love one another: for he who loveth others hath fulfilled the law: for this—

9 Thou shalt not commit adultery—Thou shall not murder— Thou shalt not steal—Thou shalt nol bear false wilness—

10 Thou shall nol covel—and whalever olher commandment there be, is summed up in this commandment, Thou shalt lave thy neighbour as thyself. This love workelh no evil lo one's neighbour: This love iherefore is ihe fulfilling of ihe law.

11 Furthermore, as we know the season, that it is now high time for us to rouse from sleep, for our deliverance is nearer

12 now than when we first believed: The night is far spent; the

13 day is drawing on; let us therefore pul off ihe works of darkness, and pul on the armour of lighl; and lei us walk as in day light, in a becoming manner—nol in revels and drunken debauches; nol in dalliance and wanlonness; nol in slrife and

14 envy; bulpulon the Lord Jesus Chrisl, and make nol provi-

XIV. sion for ihe flesh lo fulfil ils desires. Receive inlo fellowship him who is weak in ihe faith, wilhoul regard to differ-

2 ences of opinions. One indeed bdieveth that he may eat all

3 things; another who is weak eatelh vegelables. Let not him, who eateth despise him who dolh not eat. And let not him

Vol. iv. o o

4 who doth not eat, judge him who eateth. For God hath taken him into his family, who art thou who judgest another's servant. To his own master he standcth or falleth. But he shall

5 stand, for God is able to establish him. One indeed judgeth

6 one day above another; another esteemeth every day alike.

7 Let every one be fully persuaded in his own mind. He who regardeth the day, regardeth it for the Lord; and he who re- gardtth not the day, refraineth from regarding it, for the Lord. He who eateth, eateth for the Lord, for he giveth God dianks; and he who eateth not, refraineth from eating, for the Lord, and he giveth God thanks. For none of us liveth to himself,

8 nor doth any die to himself. For whether we live, we live to the Lord; and if we die, we die to the Lord; so that whether

9 we live or die, we are the Lord's. For to this end Christ died and rose and lived again, that he might be Lord both of the

10 dead and the living. Why then judgest thou thy brother, or

11 why despisest thou thy brother? For we shall all stand before the judgment seat of the Christ; For it is written, "As I live, saith the Lord, to me every knee shall bow, and every tongue

12 shall give praise to God.* Since every one of us then shall give an account of himself to God, let us therefore no more

13 judge one another, but rather come to this determination, not to lay a stumbling block in the way of a brother, nor give any

14 occasion of offence. I know and am fully assured by the Lord Jesus, that nothing is of itself unclean. But to him who think-

15 eth any thing unclean, to him it is unclean. Now if on account of thy food thy brother is grieved, thou no longer walk-

16 est According to love. Destroy not by thy food him for whom

17 Christ died. Let not therefore the good which you enjoy be ill spoken of. For the reign of God is not eating and drink-

18 ing, but righteousness and peace and joy in a holy spirit. For he who serveth the Christ in these things is acceptable to God

19 and approved by men. Let us then pursue those things which

20 tend to peace and mutual edification. Do not for the sake of food destroy the work of God. All things indeed are pure;

21 but they are an evil to a man who eateth for a stumbling block.

* Esaias 45. 23.

It is good not to eat flesh, nor drink wine, nor any thing by

22 which thy brother falleth, or stumbleth, or is made weak. Thou hast a belief; exercise it at home by thyself before God. Happy he who upon a strict examination doth not condemn

23 himself. Now he who maketh distinctions is condemned if he eateth, because he cateth not with belief; and every thing

XV. which is not according to belief is a sin. We then who are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves. Let every one of us please his neighbour 3 as far as is good for edification. For even the Christ did not 4 consult his own gratification, but as it is written, "The reproaches of them who reproached thee fell upon me"* For whatever was written heretofore, was written for bur instruction, that we by patience and the consolation of the scripture

5 may have hope. Now may the God of this patience and of this consolation grant you to have your minds mutually bent

6 on this very thing after the example of Christ Jesus, that you may unanimously, with one voice, glorify the God and Father

7 of our Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore receive one another into fellowship, even as the Christ received us into his family, for

8 the glory of God.

Now I say that, for the truth of God, Jesus Christ became the minister of circumcision, to confirm the promises made to the fathers; and that the Gentiles are to glorify God

9 for his mercy. As it is written, "For this cause I will praise

10 thee among the nations and sing to thy name."f And again it

11 is said, "Rejoice, O nations, with his people." And again,

12 Praise the Lord, all ye nations: Praise him, all ye people, also,f And again Esaias saith, "There shall be the root of Jesse, even he who riseth up to rule nations; in him nations

13 will put their trust.$ Now may the God of this trust fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that you may abound in this trust by virtue of a holy spirit.

U Now as for me, I am persuaded, my brethren, with respect

to you, that you yourselves are full of goodness, filled with all

15 knowledge and able to instruct one another; nevertheless I

*Ps. 69. 9. fPs. 18.49. {Ps. 117. 1. § Es. 11.1O,

have written to you, brethren, with more boldness, partly as your remembrancer, because of the favour which God

16 hath granted me, that I should be a ministering servant of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, and employed in the holy service of dispensing the glad tidings of God, that the offering of the Gentiles may be accepted, being hallowed by a holy spirit.

17 Therefore I have matter of boasting in Christ Jesus with respect to the things pertaining to God. For I will not presume

18 to mention any thing, save what Christ hath wrought by me for the obedience of the Gentiles, both in profession and prac-

19 tice, by virtue of signs and wonders, by the power of the spirit of God; so that from Jerusalem and the country around even to Illyricum, I have confirmed the glad tidings of the

20 Christ, (yet when thus ambitious to publish the glad tidings)

21 not where Christ was named, that I might not build on another's foundation; but as it is written,

"They to whom no publication was made concerning him, shall see,

And they who have not heard, will attentively consider.*"

22 Therefore, though I have been many times hindered from

23 coming to you, yet having now no further scope in these parts, and having had, for many years, a strong desire to visit you, I will, when I take a journey to Spain, come to you. For I

24 hope to see you on my way, and to be forwarded thither by you, when I shall have first been in some degree satisfied with

25 your company. But now I am going to Jerusalem as an almo-

26 ner to the saints. For Macedonia and Achaia have been pleased to make a contribution for the poor saints in Jerusalem.

27 For they have been pleased! Indeed they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles have partaken of their spiritual things, they ought

28 to minister to them with temporal things. Having therefore performed this business, and secured to them this contribution, 1 will come to you in my way to Spain. And I know that

29 when I come to you, I shall come with a fulness of the blessing of the glad tidings of the Christ.

30 Now I beseech you, brethren, by our Lord Jesus Christ

31 and by the love of the spirit, to join with me in earnest sup-

* Es. 52. 1$.

plications to God, for me; that I may be delivered from the unbelievers in Judea; and that this service of mine, which car- rieth me to Jerusalem, may be acceptable to the saints, that I

32 may come to you with joy, by the will of God, and refresh myself with you. Now the God of peace be with you all. Amen.

XVI. I recommend to Tou Phebe our sister, who is an almo-

2 ner of the congregation at Cenchrea, that you may receive her in the Lord in a manner becoming the saints, and afford her such assistance as her business may require: for she indeed hath assisted many, particularly myself.

3 Salute Priscilla and Aquilas my fellow labourers in Christ Jesus, who for my life exposed their own; to whom not only

4 I, but all the Gentile congregations also, owe thanks. Salute

5 also the congregation at their house. Salute my beloved Epe- netus, who is the first fruits of Achaia for Christ. Salute Ma-

6 ry, who hath taken a great deal of pains on our account. Sa-

7 lute Andronicus and Junias, my kinsmen and my fellow prisoners. They are in high repute among the apostles, and were in

8 Christ before me. Salute Amplias, who is my beloved in the

9 Lord. Salute Urbanus, our fellow labourer in Christ, and

10 Stachys, who is my beloved. Salute Appelles, who is approved in Christ. Salute those who are of the household of Aristo-

11 bulus. Salute Herodian, my kinsman. Salute those ofthehouse-

12 hold of Narcissus, who are in the Lord. Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa, who have laboured in the Lord. Salute the belov-

13 ed Persis, who hath laboured much in the Lord. Salute Ru-

14 fus, the chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine. Salute

15 Asyncritus, Phlegon, Ermas, Patrobas, Herme, and the bre-< thren with them. Salute Philologus, and Julias, and Nereus, and his sister, and Olympus, and all the saints with them. Sa-

16 lute one another with a holy kiss. The congregation of Christ salute you.

17 Now I exhort you, brethren, to mark them who make the divisions and the stumbling blocks contrary to the doctrine

16 which you have learned; and avoid them. For such men do not serve our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly. And by their fawning speeches and flattering forms of address, they

19 deceive the hearts of the innocent. For your obedience is come

abroad to all; I therefore rejoice on your account, and wish you to be indeed wise for good, and without any mixture of

20 evil. And the God of peace will soon bruise satan under your feet.

The favour of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.

21 Timothy, my fellow labourer, and Lucius, and Jason, and

22 Sosipater, my kinsmen, salute you. I, Tertius, the writer of

23 this letter, salute you in the Lord. Gaius, who entertaineth me and the whole congregation, saluteth you. Erastus, the chamberlain of the city, saluteth you: so doth Quartus the brother.

24 The favour of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.

25 Now to him who is able to establish you according to my glad tidings and the proclamation of Jesus Christ—according

26 to the disclosure of a secret which was concealed in times of old, but which is now laid open, and by prophetic writings made known to all the nations, according to an order of the

27 everlasting God, for the obedience of belief—to the only wise God be the glory forever, through Jesus Christ. Amen.